Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
DOI: 10.31876/er.v4i35.758
50
Development of Intellectual Skills in the Teacher of
the First Cycle of Primary Education
Desarrollo de habilidades intelectuales en el docente del primer ciclo de
enseñanza primaria
Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire
*
, Lázara Herrera Martínez
**
, Verónica Jacqueline Guamán Gómez
***
Recibido: 16 de noviembre de 2019.
Aprobado: 19 de febrero de 2020.
Cite this:
Espinoza, E.E., Herrera, L. & Guamán, V.J. (2020).
Development of Intellectual Skills in the Teacher
of the First Cycle of Primary Education. Espirales.
Revista Multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca,
4(35), 50-66.
*
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences. Universidad Técnica
de Machala, Machala, Ecuador.
E-mail: eespinoza@utmachala.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0002-0537-4760.
Google Scholar
**
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences. Instituto Central de
Ciencias Pedagógicas, La Habana, Cuba.
E-mail: lherrera@iccp.rimed.cu.
ORCID: 0000-0003-4134-198X.
Google Scholar
***
PhD in Educational Sciences. Instituto Central de
Ciencias Pedagógicas, La Habana, Cuba.
E-mail: eimyverito73@hotmail.com.
ORCID: 0000-0001-9284-5040.
Google Scholar
Abstract
The formation and development of the general intellectual
abilities begin from the rst years of the infant’s life and
constitute the foundations for the future formation of
professional capacities and competences; however,
adequate strategies are not always implemented in
primary education that favor them, sometimes due to
teacher preparation aws. The present study has the
purpose of characterizing the level of knowledge that
educators have in the rst cycle of primary education in
the city of Machala on this subject. The methodological
strategy responded to the quantitative-qualitative
paradigm, systematized through the methods of scientic
and statistical observation. The information collected
through a survey of 40 randomly selected teachers is
shown through of a table and gures descriptive. The
ndings allowed to conclude that there are shortcomings
in teacher preparation that limit the formation and
development of intellectual skills, as a result student
have intellectual inadequacies.
Key words: Intellectual skills, rst cycle, teacher training.
51
Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire, Lázara Herrera Martínez, Verónica Jacqueline Guamán Gómez
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
Resumen
La formación y desarrollo de las habilidades intelectuales generales
se inician desde los primeros años de vida del infante y constituyen los
cimientos para la futura formación de capacidades y competencias
profesionales; sin embargo no siempre se implementan adecuadas
estrategias en la enseñanza primaria que las favorezcan, en ocasiones
por falencias en la preparación del maestro. El presente estudio tiene
el propósito de caracterizar el nivel de conocimientos que poseen los
educadores del primer ciclo de la educación primaria de la ciudad de
Machala sobre este tema. La estrategia metodológica respondió al
paradigma cuanti-cualitativo, sistematizada a través de los métodos
de observación cientíca y estadístico. La información recopilada a
través de una encuesta a 40 docentes seleccionados aleatoriamente
se muestra a través de una tabla y guras descriptivas. Los hallazgos
permitieron concluir que existen falencias en la preparación del docente
que limitan la formación y desarrollo de las habilidades intelectuales
como consecuencia los alumnos presentan insuciencias intelectuales.
Palabras clave: habilidades intelectuales, primer ciclo, formación
docente.
Introduction
Intellectual skills must be formed and developed from the early years of the infant, it is the
responsibility of the school as a preparatory stage for the subsequent formation of skills and
competencies necessary in civic and professional life (Kholodnaya & Gelfman, 2016), in order
to achieve personalities capable of directing processes and integrating knowledge, skills and
values (Girvan, Conneely & Tangney, 2016).
In this endeavor, the paths are multiple: educational models and policies, use of technologies
and means to support teaching, curriculum design, application of didactic and methodological
strategies, among others; each of them offers certain possibilities and represents specic
challenges. This diversity suggests that there is no single way to achieve this purpose, hence
the importance of developing innovative efforts and experiences.
In this sense, in the Ecuadorian educational eld, strategies have been drawn to contribute
to the satisfaction of this necessary construction of the student’s personality; however, even
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Development of Intellectual Skills in the Teacher of the First Cycle of Primary Education
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
these actions are not enough; an integrative view of this phenomenon is essential, which allows
advising solutions from the teacher training processes.
In this regard, Chi, Liu & Bai (2017) and Rivera, Pernas & Nogueira (2017), coincide in pointing
out that generally in classrooms teachers give greater importance to the teaching of knowledge
than to the rest of the components of the teaching process-learning, which is motivated by
a limited preparation of the teacher and is evidenced in the inadequacies of the students in
the domain of general intellectual abilities and mental capacities. While it is true that these
skills are closely linked to the assimilation of knowledge, since, in this process they are formed,
developed and perfected, it is necessary to comply with methodologies based on logically
structured procedures for their proper ourishing.
Several authors have referred to general intellectual abilities, among which they are cited for
their interest in this study to Bacallao et al. (2007), Bean et al. (2018), Black et al. (2018), Care,
Scoular & Grin (2016), Espinoza (2017), Kholodnaya & Gelfman (2016), Ramón, Ortega &
Espinoza (2020), and Villalobos et al. (2018); authors what in their research not only they value
the training and development of these skills in schoolchildren, they also coincide in pointing
out the necessary teacher training from an interdisciplinary perspective that allows the design
and application of comprehensive strategies that go beyond the limits of skills necessary for
each subject and establish mutual collaboration actions.
In order to characterize this situation in the teaching of the rst cycle of primary schools in
the city of Machala, this study is carried out.
Brief epistemological approach around the intellectual abilities of the rst
cycle of primary education
There are various denitions of skill, including the one assumed by Kholodnaya & Gelfman
(2016), who consider that it is the ability acquired by man that allows the rational use of their
knowledge and habits in the process of theoretical and practical activity. Criterion shared with
Bacallao et al. (2007), who consider that these are assimilated in the process of interaction
of the subject with the object, are the content of the actions that the subject performs, made
up of a group of operations that have a dened objective.
For their part, Ramón et al. (2020) assume the skill as the set of psychic and practical actions
that the subject must carry out and is based on the activity; denition that agrees with the
proposed by Álvarez de Zayas (1999), who states that it is the system of actions and operations
that the individual dominates in the pursuit of an objective. Brito, Castillo & Domenech (2000),
add that: “the skill is that particular executive psychological formation constituted by the system
of dominated operations that guarantee its execution under conscious control” (p. 1); in this
53
Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire, Lázara Herrera Martínez, Verónica Jacqueline Guamán Gómez
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
denition, the conscious state of the subject is signicantly particularized in the execution of
the pertinent actions in the achievement of the skill.
Regarding the intellectual skills Amorós (2009), points out that they are those that are needed in
the performance of mental activities. Kim & Lundberg (2016) dene them as a set of capabilities
that improve the learning of new knowledge, which are complemented with manual, aesthetic
and other inherent human skills, which at the same time favor the acquisition of new ones.
Synthesizing the previous contributions, is assumes as a concept of intellectual skills those
that intervene in the execution of mental activities for the transformation of knowledge in a
conscious way, in the achievement of the objectives outlined in the learning process and that
in turn favor the acquisition of new skills; from a didactic perspective, they characterize the
actions that the student takes to make up for the lack of knowledge in the face of an unknown
situation, and which add to the wealth of knowledge, contributing to the intellectual formation
of the personality.
Much has been debated about the systematization of actions for the formation of a skill, in this
sense, Guamán, Espinoza & Serrano (2007), consider that for this it is necessary to consider
the generalizing and extra-polarizing effect; in this process it is necessary for students to put
into practice the necessary operations that promote their role: active, critical, creative and
participatory, always from the perspective of the individualities of each one (Bean et al., 2018).
In this way it is contributing to the integral development of the student, which is the basic
purpose of education; in this regard, Coll (2001), states: “the ultimate purpose of pedagogical
intervention is to help the student develop the abilities to carry out meaningful learning by
himself, and to learn to learn” (p. 23).
According to Black at al. (2018), this represents that through an action-reection-action process
is that subjects, together with others, carry out the development of their intellectual abilities
and the construction of knowledge, in this way singular importance is given to collective activity
based on the postulates of the Vigoskian theory of sociocultural learning.
For Espinoza (2017), in this process, the teacher not only teaches and directs, but also
accompanies and stimulates the student’s process of analysis and reection, for which they
must be prepared and possess a special sensitivity, an aspect that is sometimes not present
when consideration building those skills.
Another aspect of great importance to take into account and for which teachers must be
prepared is the control stage, which aims to know the level of development reached by the
student; as well as the self-evaluation that allows them to assess their results.
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Development of Intellectual Skills in the Teacher of the First Cycle of Primary Education
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
Intellectual skills to be formed in the rst cycle of primary education
The rst cycle of primary education in Ecuador has among its objectives the formation and
development of the following general intellectual skills: observe, describe, compare, exemplify
and use models.
Observation plays a priority role in the intellectual development of the individual, but not just
any observation, the one of interest is that the student performs with a well-dened purpose,
and is aware of the importance of the actions that it executes.
Direct observation of the objects and phenomena of the surrounding environment is of
great importance for the child, because it puts him/her in direct contact with the world that
surrounds him/her, broadens his/her horizon and develops his/her intellectual capacities; but
the schoolchild must be taught to observe, for which the teacher must know their particularities,
the schools starting level to motivate him/her and arouse his/her interest in observation
about this reality, the teacher must teach him/her to learn to summarize the knowledge
obtained about the object and value the actions and procedures used (Kim & Lundberg, 2016;
Kholodnaya & Gelfman, 2016).
The development of the skill to describe must start from preschool education, it is based on
the verbalization of the perception of the objects or phenomena observed, which contributes
to the development of language. Later and gradually the educator has to make the student
begin to describe what he/she remembers, without the need for direct observation of the object.
This skill, together with observation, is essential for the acquisition of knowledge about nature
and society, at the same time that it allows the teacher to control the actions carried out by
the student and that are not totally evident to the teacher.
The skill to compare is based on the contrast of the characteristics of two or more objects to
determine their similarities and differences (Adonina et al., 2018); in the process of training
this skill, it is recommended that the teacher keep in mind that the student must start by
establishing the differences, and only when he/she has managed to perfect this rst moment
will he proceed to the determination of the common characteristics according to Guamán,
Espinoza & Serrano (2017). In order to be able to compare, it is evident that the skill of
observation must be previously developed. The comparison of objects, facts and situations
is carried out on the basis of processes of analysis, synthesis, abstraction and generalization.
Exemplication, like comparison, is a skill that corresponds to the application seen as a level
of assimilation, so its training is more complex and requires greater dedication for part of
the teacher (Espinoza & Campuzano, 2019), a detailed orientation, a broader execution and
a precise control of the operations that the school performs, which is consistent with the
55
Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire, Lázara Herrera Martínez, Verónica Jacqueline Guamán Gómez
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
approaches carried out by Agulló, Meroño and Bueno (2017). Therefore, through this skill the
student links knowledge with his/her life, thus making learning more affordable.
The skill to use models begins when intellectual actions arise in the child, carried out mentally,
which are supported by material means, graphics, simple instruments and the representation
of the real object. For Espinoza and Ricaldi (2019), the use of models facilitates the acquisition
of knowledge, serves as a basis for controlling work and allows the school to assess the quality
of their actions, determine their shortcomings and organize work for correction.
It is important the domain by the teacher of the degree of hierarchy of the skills to be achieved
in the students, since their logical order should not be violated; as well as the interrelation
between them, which allows the harmonious promotion of them.
Requirements for the formation of general intellectual skills
The requirements for the formation of general intellectual skills are expressed in the objectives
of the degree and cycle. That is why it is necessary when evaluating the quality of education
from the results achieved in the training of the educated.
Among these requirements proposed by Hernández (2000) are: guarantee the student’s
mastery of the content necessary for the development of the actions; develop in the student
an adequate level of development of the actions that have a close relationship of subordination
with the skill to develop; accurate and clear target orientation; formulation of the objective
of the activity in the form of action; determination of the operational system; not only verbal
guidance, it must have models and teaching aids; grading of the level of diculties that the
student will face; attention to the psychological peculiarities, age and level of independence
of the child; make the student aware of the actions she executes; organization of the process
collectively; have guides that facilitate the work of schoolchildren, at the same time they can
be used for self-control; establish emotional empathy with students to achieve adequate
communication between teacher and students; timely use of both re-productive and productive
methods; stimulation by the desire to improve, to perfect the work and obtain good results;
structuring the actions and operations in such a way that they are sucient, guaranteeing the
systematization of the actions and consequently their consolidation; guarantee in teaching
activities that the student is the subject of their own learning; pay attention to the process of
memorizing the actions, as well as their improvement; control of the activity carried out by the
schoolchild to identify and solve possible deciencies and prevent any deciencies that may
arise; control and evaluation of the results directed towards all the constitutive elements of
the objective (knowledge, skills, evaluative actions and the conditions in which the assimilation
process took place); motivate students towards self-control, demonstrating its importance for
obtaining higher quality results in their tasks, in their learning; demonstration to the students how
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Development of Intellectual Skills in the Teacher of the First Cycle of Primary Education
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
to operate with the elaborated model, from the comparison of the work of the schoolchildren
with the requirements that appear in it; collective analysis of the studentswork.
In addition, to control the mastery of skills, the teacher must take into account the indicators
that can guide their analysis: his correct compliance, the conscious nature of the execution of
the action, the level of independence and the stability of the actions.
Materials and Methods
In the systematization of the methodological strategy, the quantitative-qualitative paradigm
and the use of research methods: scientic and statistical observation were assumed. Through
direct scientic observation of the teaching-learning process, the regularities of the teacher’s
work were determined according to the formation and development of these skills; the statistical
method facilitated the planning, collection, processing and analysis of the information collected
through the application of a survey (questionnaire) carried out on 140 randomly selected
teachers from the population of educators in the rst cycle of primary schools of the city of
Machala. The results were summarized and presented through of a table and gures of the
Descriptive Statistics.
For the preparation of the survey, the methodological guideline validated by Hernández (2000),
this was prepared with the objective of determining the degree of preparation of teachers
to assume the development of general intellectual skills and how they develop actions to
achieve this purpose.
Once the questionnaire was selected, it was submitted to the criteria of experts for its validation
of the context. The group of experts was made up of seven specialists on the subject, three
pedagogues, three psychologists and an educational psychologist, all with scientic category
of doctors in their area of knowledge; likewise, all of them have main teaching categories (main
holder, associate holder or assistant). The reliability of the instrument was determined using
the Cronbach’s alpha coecient test, at a signicance level of 5 %.
Results
The results obtained through the application of the survey to the 140 selected teachers of the
rst cycle of primary education are shown in the following.
Figure 1 shows the intellectual skills that must be formed in the 1
st
cycle recognized and
mentioned by teachers.
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Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire, Lázara Herrera Martínez, Verónica Jacqueline Guamán Gómez
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
Observation
Description
Comparison
Exemplification
Use of models
77.5
67.5
32.5
30
0
Figure 1. Intellectual skills to be formed in the rst cycle of primary education, Machala. Academic Period
2017-2018. Source: author’s own elaboration.
77.5 % (108) of the teachers surveyed recognized observation as one of the general intellectual
skills to be developed in students in the rst cycle of primary education; 67.5 % (94) mention
the description, 32.5 % (13) the comparison and 35 % (49) the exemplication; the least
identied skill was exemplication with only 30 % (42). The use of models was not recognized
by any of the teachers.
The information obtained on the way in which the teacher organizes the teaching work to
achieve the development of these skills in their students and the requirements to be taken
into account are summarized in table 1.
Table 1. Requirements for the formation of general intellectual skills
Requirement Amount %
Mastery by the student of the content necessary for the development of the actions 140 100
Adequate level of development of actions that are closely subordinate to the ability to
be developed
105 75
Accurate and clear target orientation 70 50
Formulation of the objective of the activity in the form of action 39 27.5
Determination of the operational system 42 30
Not only verbal guidance, it must have models and teaching aids 39 27.5
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Development of Intellectual Skills in the Teacher of the First Cycle of Primary Education
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
Requirement Amount %
Grading of the level of diculties that the student will face 18 12.5
Attention to the psychological peculiarities, age and level of independence of the child 18 12.5
The student must be aware of the actions he performs 74 52.5
Organization of the process collectively 88 62.5
Having guides that facilitate the work of schoolchildren, at the same time it serves for
self-control
35 25
Establish emotional empathy with students to achieve adequate communication between
teacher and students
0 0
Timely use of both reproductive and productive methods 7 5
Stimulation by the desire to improve, to perfect the work and obtain good results 28 20
Structuring of the actions and operations in such a way that they are sucient, guaranteeing
the systematization of the actions and consequently their consolidation
28 20
Guarantee in teaching activities that the student is the subject of their own learning. 42 30
Pay attention to the process of memorizing the actions, as well as their improvement 7 5
Control of the activity carried out by the school to identify and solve possible deciencies
and prevent any deciencies that may arise
0 0
Control and evaluation of the results directed towards all the constitutive elements of
the objective
0 0
Motivate students towards self-control, demonstrating its importance for obtaining higher
quality results in their tasks, in their learning
53 37.5
Demonstration to students how to operate with the elaborated model. 0 0
Collective analysis of the students’ work 122 87.5
Source: author’s own elaboration.
It is signicant that 100 % (140) of teachers consider that a requirement for the development
of skills is mastery by the student of the content; 87.5 % (122) give importance to the collective
analysis of the work carried out by the student in the pursuit of the development of skills; 75
% (105) consider that the level of development of actions subordinate to skill is of the utmost
importance for their training and promotion; 62.5 % (88) consider that a requirement to bear
in mind is the organization of the process collectively; 52.5 % (74) consider that the student
should be aware of the actions that they carry out; 50 % (70) of the respondents gave the
precise and clear orientation of the objective singular importance in the achievement of skills.
59
Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire, Lázara Herrera Martínez, Verónica Jacqueline Guamán Gómez
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
Motivating students towards self-control, demonstrating its relevance for obtaining higher quality
results in their tasks, in their learning, is considered by 37.5 % (53) an essential requirement
in the process of training the skills.
Among the requirements less recognized by teachers is the determination of the operational
system and the design of teaching activities where the student is the subject of their own
learning, which were mentioned by 30 % (42); similarly, not only verbal orientation, where
models and teaching aids are available, was considered by 27.5 % (39) of the surveyed
teachers. 25 % (35) value that having guides that facilitate the work of schoolchildren, at the
same time they serve for self-control to be a requirement in the process of training skills.
The graduation of the level of diculties that the student will face and the attention to the
psychological particularities, age and level of independence of the child was considered
by 12.5 % (18).
Stimulating the desire to improve, to perfect the work and obtain good results was taken
into account by only 20 % (28) of the teachers; as well as the structuring of the actions and
operations in such a way that they are sucient, thus guaranteeing the systematization and
consolidation of the actions. Only 5 % (7) of educators take into consideration the timely
use of both reproductive and productive methods and attention to memorizing actions, as
well as their improvement.
None of the respondents took into consideration the emotional empathy of the teacher with
the schoolchildren in order to achieve adequate communication, the control of the activity
carried out by the schoolchild to identify and solve possible deciencies and prevent any
deciencies that could arise, the demonstration to the students of how to operate with the
elaborated model, and the control and evaluation of the results directed towards all the
constitutive elements of the objective.
In inquiries about the actions necessary to develop the intellectual abilities in students, the
following information was obtained, which is shown in gure 2.
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Development of Intellectual Skills in the Teacher of the First Cycle of Primary Education
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
Observation Description
Comparison Exemplication
Use of Models
Figure 2. Mastery of algorithms of actions for the formation and development of intellectual skills in the rst
cycle of primary education, Machala. Academic Period 2017-2018. Source: author’s own elaboration.
It is observed that only 7 (5 %) of the teachers completely dominate the algorithm of actions
to be executed to train and develop the observation; 14 (10 %) know the actions, but do not
structure them logically; 21 (15 %) omit some actions and 98 (70 %) do not know the algorithm,
which is made up of the following actions: know or determine the object, fact or phenomenon
to observe and the objectives of the observation; analyze the object of observation; set the
features or characteristics of the object according to the proposed objectives; summarize the
information obtained from the stated purposes; assess the application of the actions.
Regarding the description, only 4 (2.5 %) completely dominate the algorithm of the actions to
be carried out to train and develop the skill; the sequence of steps to follow is: initially identify
the object being described, this will facilitate the process of organizing the description; analyze
the object, fact or phenomenon that is described, determining the possible planes; organize
the description (elaboration of the plan); determine the elements that compose it and the links
that are established between them (at least the fundamental ones); present them through
language (oral or written); control the quality of the description from the comparison of what
is expressed with the object of the description.
Among the teachers surveyed, 11 (7.5 %) are aware of the actions, but they do not condemn
them logically; 28 (20 %) omit some actions; 98 (70 %) teachers declare not knowing
the algorithm.
The sequence of actions to achieve the comparison is not known by any of the respondents;
102 (72.5 %) did not master the algorithm and 39 (27.5 %) skipped some steps.
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Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire, Lázara Herrera Martínez, Verónica Jacqueline Guamán Gómez
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
Hernández (2000), points out that the development of this ability can be achieved if the
following actions are taken into account: determine the objects of comparison; determine
the lines of comparison; determine similarities and differences between objects for each
comparison line; draw conclusions about each line; draw conclusions about each object; draw
general conclusions.
The analysis of the information provided by gure 2 relative to the skill of exemplication
shows that no teacher surveyed masters the algorithm of actions, 7 (5 %) despite knowing the
actions do not know how to structure them logically; 18 (12.5 %) are unaware of some of the
actions and 116 (82.5 %) are unaware of the algorithm. These steps are: determine the part
of the content that you want to exemplify; select the essentials of the selected part; select,
from the reality close to the child, the object, fact or phenomenon that carries the essential;
make known the object, fact or phenomenon as a concretion of the reality expressed in the
fact, concept or law, highlighting the essential content, which allows the quality control of the
operations carried out.
All 140 (100 %) teachers do not know the algorithm to develop the use of models, the actions
in question are: analysis of the selected model; determination of essential features; copy of
the features that compose it (or elaboration of the new object on the basis of the essential
features of the given model); comparison of the work done with the model; correction of the
deciencies detected in the copy (or the new elaborated object).
Regarding the causes that motivate the diculties in the preparation of teachers, the information
that is summarized in gure 3 was obtained.
Undergraduate
training is
insucient
Once
graduated the
teacher
receives no
preparation for
this job
Necessary
attention is not
paid to this
aspect
It is a very
complex task
Figure 3. Causes of inadequacies in teacher training of intellectual skills in the rst cycle of primary education,
Machala. Academic Period 2017-2018. Source: author’s own elaboration.
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Figure 3 shows that 100 % (140) of the respondents attribute their limitations to adequately
develop intellectual skills in their students to insucient spaces for improvement once they
graduate; 92.5 % (132) consider that it is too complex a task that requires specialized training;
87.5 % (122) consider that the competent academic authorities and teachers do not pay the
necessary attention to this aspect; leaving it to the considerations of each teacher in particular;
75 % (105) believe that undergraduate training is insucient and does not delve into the
requirements to be taken into account for the training of general intellectual skills that are
expressed in the undergraduate and cycle objectives.
Discussion
These results show ssures in the domain of the necessary knowledge of teachers for the
formation of the intellectual skills to be achieved in the rst cycle, which corresponds to the
results of the inquiries made by Rivera, Pernas & Nogueira (2017), who found that the vast
majority of teachers only master the specic skills of the programs of the subjects they teach,
such as Language and Mathematics.
Various authors have ruled on the requirements of the process of training and development
of general intellectual skills, including:
Achiong et al. (2016), consider that the actions and operations should be structured in such
a way as to guarantee the student the performance of actions of the same type that are
characterized by their individualization and an increasing level of complexity, although the
content varies, which will allow the systematization of the shares and consequently their
consolidation. This same author considers that an adequate structuring of actions contributes
to the promotion of skills. Along the same lines of ideas, Chi et al. (2017) and Kohler (2013),
state that the process of training and development of skills is complex and requires the
integration of a well-organized system of actions.
The learning of skills through active methods is increasingly approaching the use of teaching
techniques and resources in order to create collaborative spaces where social interactions play
a determining role, based on the postulates of the Vigoskian theory of sociocultural learning
(Adonina et al., 2018).
The ndings of Kohler (2013), in their research, show that academic performance is signicantly
associated with the intellectual skills of students, which can only be achieved through didactic-
methodological strategies that allow organizing teaching work based on compliance of
necessary requirements that facilitate this process.
63
Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire, Lázara Herrera Martínez, Verónica Jacqueline Guamán Gómez
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
The teachers surveyed do not know the algorithm of actions to be executed in the formation
of intellectual skills or do not comply with the steps of the logical sequence; for example, in the
formation of the skill of description the elaboration of the plan, the establishment of the links
between the elements that make up the object and the control of the quality of the description
are frequently omitted. These results coincide with the ndings of Bean et al. (2018). In this
sense, Espinoza & Ricaldi (2019) in their studies concluded that the effectiveness in the
formation of intellectual abilities is achieved through the correct structuring of the sequence
of steps to follow so that the action becomes ability, a process that must be systematic,
continuous and conscious.
Regarding the preparation of teachers to assume the process of training intellectual skills,
scholars such as Agulló, Meroño & Bueno (2017), Espinoza (2017), Villalobos et al. (2018), have
pronounced on the necessary and constant improvement of the teacher. These authors in one
way or another have approached the problem and coincide with the ndings of the present
study by pointing out as causes of teacher insuciencies those associated with undergraduate
training and teacher improvement.
The teachers surveyed indicated as causes of their limited preparation: insucient postgraduate
training, since once they graduate they do not receive preparation for this work, it is a very
complex task, the competent authorities do not pay the necessary attention and undergraduate
training to this aspect is insucient, in this order.
Conclusions
The results of the inquiries made allow us to conclude that the process of development of general
intellectual skills has the following shortcomings: there is no intention in the development of
intellectual skills, it is limited to the abilities inherent to the subjects of the study curriculum;
teachers do not master the sequence of logical steps for the formation and development of
intellectual skills (observation, description, classication, exemplication and use of models);
the preparation of the teachers of the rst cycle of the primary schools of the city of Machala
is insucient to comply with the training and development of the intellectual skills that appear
indicated for said cycle, as a consequence of the deciency in the undergraduate training, which
guarantee the successful performance of the graduate; postgraduate improvement in general
does not include the topics related to the development of intellectual skills dened for the
rst cycle, so it does not contribute to complement the improvement of the aforementioned
professionals in this important aspect.
As a consequence of these ssures, the level of development of general intellectual skills in
students is insucient.
64
Development of Intellectual Skills in the Teacher of the First Cycle of Primary Education
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 50-66
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