Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
DOI: 10.31876/er.v4i35.757
34
Psychometric validation of a reformulated version of
the Thirteen-item Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13)
in a Mexican student population
Validación psicométrica de una versión reformulada de la escala de sentido
de coherencia de trece ítems (SOC-13) en una población estudiantil mexicana
Arturo Barraza Macías
*
Recibido: 14 de agosto de 2019.
Aprobado: 22 de mayo de 2020.
Cite this:
Barraza, A. (2020). Psychometric validation of a
reformulated version of the Thirteen-item Sense of
Coherence Scale (SOC-13) in a Mexican student
population. Espirales. Revista Multidisciplinaria de
investigación cientíca, 4(35), 34-49.
*
Bachelor in Education. Universidad de Oriente,
Veracruz, México.
E-mail: tbarraza-2017@hotmail.com.
ORCID: 0000-0001-6262-0940.
Google Scholar
Abstract
The main objective of this research is to obtain
validity and reliability evidence that supports the use
of a reformulated version of the 13-item Sense of
Coherence Scale (SOC-13). To achieve this objective,
an instrumental study was carried out by applying a
reformulated version of the 13-item sense of coherence
scale to 250 higher education students from the city
of Durango, Mexico. Conrmatory factor analysis led to
the elimination of six items from the original scale and
the validation of a seven-item version that showed a
good t to the three-factor model (
x
2 = 12.72;
x
2/df =
1.1; p = 0.31194; RMSEA = 0.025); likewise, it reports a
reliability in Cronbach’s alpha of 0.77 and of 0.79 in the
reliability by halves for an unequal length according to
the Spearman-Brown formula. These results show that
the seven-item version is a good option to measure the
sense of coherence in the Mexican population.
Key words: stress, control, manageability, understandability,
signicance.
35
Arturo Barraza Macías
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
Resumen
La presente investigación tiene como objetivo central obtener
evidencias de validez y conabilidad que respalden el uso de una
versión reformulada de la escala de sentido de coherencia de 13 ítems
(SOC-13). Para el logro de este objetivo se llevó a cabo un estudio
instrumental mediante la aplicación de una versión reformulada
de la escala de sentido de coherencia de 13 ítems a 250 alumnos
de educación superior de la ciudad de Durango, México. El análisis
factorial conrmatorio condujo a eliminar seis ítems de la escala
original y someter a validación una versión de siete ítems que mostró
un buen ajuste al modelo de tres factores (
x
2 = 12,72;
x
2/df = 1,1; p =
0,31194; RMSEA = 0,025); además, reporta una conabilidad en alfa
de Cronbach de 0,77 y de 0,79 en la conabilidad por mitades para
una longitud desigual según la fórmula de Spearman-Brown. Estos
resultados muestran que la versión de siete ítems es una buena opción
para medir el sentido de coherencia en la población mexicana.
Palabras clave: estrés, control, manejabilidad, comprensibilidad,
signicatividad.
Introduction
Stress is an omnipresent fact in today’s society. The dizzying and overwhelming advance of
information and communication technologies, the gradual and persistent deterioration of the
social structure, the emergence of new forms of socialization, new working conditions and
high levels of self-demand, internalized by the new generations, make stress a permanent
companion of the human being.
In the different sectors of the population in which this phenomenon has been studied, it has
been associated with physical diseases (León & Fornes, 2015; Navinés et al., 2016; Zavala,
Verdejo & Díaz-Loving, 2015) or mental (López-Trejo et al., 2018; Vargas, del Castillo & Guzmán,
2016; Urzúa, Heredia & Caqueo-Urízar, 2016); in line with this second type of variables, it is
necessary to remember that the World Health Organization considers that one of the central
components to strengthen mental health is the ability to deal with the stress of daily life.
This omnipresence of stress, and its widely documented effects, make it particularly important
to study variables that help reduce its presence or mitigate its effects. One approach that offers
36
Psychometric validation of a reformulated version of the Thirteen-item Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) in a Mexican student population
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
wide possibilities to better understand and deal with stress is salutogenic, which considers
health and illness as two extremes of a continuum and focuses on explaining how a person
can move towards the healthy end of that continuum (Antonovsky, 1979, 1987).
This approach presents two central analytical axes: the sense of coherence (SOC) and the
general resources of resistance (GRR); both offer a consistent theoretical framework that
allows health promotion through proper stress management (Naaldenberg et al., 2011). In the
case of this research, attention is focused on the sense of coherence since its main function
is to face stressful events directly, preventing the initial tension or pressure from turning into
stress (Antonovski, 1987); this construct consists of three components: understandability,
manageability, and signicance (Antonovsky, 1979, 1987).
Understandability is the component that allows you to understand the way people see the
world. The greater the presence of this component, people tend to see reality, both internal and
external, as structured, predictable and explicable, which allows them to mobilize the relevant
and necessary resources to adequately face the requirements or demands of the environment.
Manageability is the component that refers to the understanding of demand, specically, and
the availability of the necessary resources to face it in a correct way. The greater the presence
of this component, people understand in a better way the specic demands that are posed to
them and consider that they have the necessary resources to face them successfully.
Signicance is the component that indicates that for the person facing or managing that
demand or environmental problem makes sense. The greater the presence of this component,
the requirements or demands of the environment are considered by people as challenges to
which it is worth investing time and effort to solve them.
In short, and in the words of Antonovski (1987), the sense of coherence can be considered as
“a generalized emotional-cognitive perception, by an individual, of the stimuli that bombard
him, since they are, to a greater or lesser extent, controlled by him. Stimuli are considered
understandable, manageable, and meaningful; as information rather than as concern” (p. 155).
To measure the sense of coherence, the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) was formulated,
with the understanding that this construct should not be considered a way of coping or a
personality trait, but rather an orientation to life, which is why some tend to also refer to it as
the Life Orientation Questionnaire (Alonso-Castillo et al., 2018; Salazar-Estrada, 2018).
Initially, this questionnaire, designed based on Guttmans facet theory, consisted of 29 items in
three subscales: understandability, manageability and signicance (SOC-29). Subsequently, it
underwent various modications in relation to the number of items and the type of response,
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Arturo Barraza Macías
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
as well as the substitution of some questions, giving rise to a shorter version of 13 items (SOC-
13) and even another of three items (SOC-3).
These different versions, along with others, have been used and validated in multiple studies
(Drageset & Haugan, 2015; Getnet & Alem, 2019; Lerdal et al., 2014, 2017; Naaldenberg et
al., 2011; Olsson, Gassne & Hansson, 2009; Rajesh et al., 2015; Sardu et al., 2012; Stern et
al., 2019); in fact, since 1993, Antonovski already reported the application of this instrument
in various studies carried out in 20 countries to determine its viability, reliability and validity.
For their part, Lizarbe-Chocarro et al., in 2016, reported that there were at least 15 different
versions of this scale, which had been translated into 33 languages and had been used in
less 33 countries.
Of the different existing versions, the attention of this research is focused on the version of 13
items (SOC 13) validated in Spanish. In this regard, it can be observed that the main studies
in this regard have been carried out in Spain (Lizarbe-Chocarro et al., 2016; Malagón et al.,
2012; Vega, Frías & Del Pino, 2018; Virués-Ortega et al., 2007), except for one case from Peru
(Saravia, Iberico & Yearwood, 2014) and another from Mexico (Velázquez et al., 2014).
In these validation processes, Cronbach’s alpha ranged between 0.81 (Lizarbe-Chocarro et
al., 2016) and 0.79 (Velázquez et al., 2014), with the rest of the studies reporting a Cronbach’s
alpha value of 0.80 (Saravia et al., 2014; Vega et al., 2018).
Regarding the factorial structure, most of the studies conrm the structure of three factors
(Lizarbe-Chocarro et al., 2016; Malagón et al., 2012; Saravia et al., 2014; Vega et al., 2018)
although others maintain a bifactorial structure (Velázquez et al., 2014). It is worth highlighting
the case of Lizarbe-Chocarro et al. (2016) that despite maintaining a structure of three factors,
they arm that these do not correspond to the author’s originals.
In the case of Mexico, Velázquez et al. (2014) reached a bifactorial structure, although for this
they had to eliminate ve items by presenting an 8-item version of this scale. Likewise, these
authors recognize problems in the understanding of the items by the people surveyed, so
they recommend taking care of the wording of the items and the clarity in the answer options.
Given this panorama, which continues to present inconclusive and diverse indicators related
to the evidence of validity of this scale, it was considered convenient to reformulate the scale
and develop the validation process of this version of the scale in the Mexican population.
38
Psychometric validation of a reformulated version of the Thirteen-item Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) in a Mexican student population
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
Materials and Methods
Participants
This study, of an instrumental nature, was carried out with a sample of 250 higher education
students from the city of Durango, Mexico. This sample was non-probabilistic, intentional and
determined by accessibility to the respondents. The inclusion criteria were being a student
at that institution, having attended classes on the day the questionnaires were applied, and
having the appropriate motor and sensory skills to answer them.
The distribution of the surveyed students, according to the ve sociodemographic variables
investigated in the personal data section, are presented in table 1. As can be seen, there is a
preponderance of women, of students with an age of 18 to 33 years, who study the undergraduate
level and the fth semester.
Table 1. Characterization of the simple
Variable N %
Sex
Man 52 20.8
Woman 198 79.2
Age
18 to 33 years old 236 94.4
33 to 48 years old 11 4.4
48 to 63 years old 3 1.2
Institution
School of Medicine and Nutrition 98 39.2
Universidad Pedagógica de Durango 78 31.2
Benemérita y Centenaria Escuela Normal del Estado de Durango 56 22.4
Others 18 7.2
Level of studies
Bachelor 239 95.6
Master 11 4.4
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Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
Variable N %
Semester
Zero 1 .4
First 27 10.8
Second 14 5.6
Third 50 20
Fourth 27 10.8
Fifth 101 40.4
Sixth 1 .4
Seventh 27 10.8
Eighth 2 .8
Source: author own elaboration.
To collect the information, a questionnaire made up of two sections was used: in section one,
personal data was investigated as sex, age, educational institution, educational level and
semester being attended; and section two consisted of a reformulation of the 13-item version
of the sense of coherence scale (Antonovsky, 1993).
The sense of coherence scale, in its original version of 13 items (SOC-13), is answered by means
of a semantic differential with a scaling of seven values; this scale was translated into Spanish
and submitted to validation by Virués-Ortega et al. (2007), presenting a reliability in Cronbach’s
alpha of 0.80 and a 4-factor solution that reported 65 % of the explained variance; however,
the authors nally opted for a bifactorial solution that explained 41 % of the total variance.
In its application to the Mexican population (Velázquez et al., 2014), a reliability level of 0.79
was obtained in Cronbach’s alpha and a bifactorial solution, although for this ve items were
eliminated so that in fact it would be a different version of 8 items. However, it is necessary
to remember that in this application the authors recognized that there were problems in
understanding the items, so they recommended taking care of their wording and clarity in
the response options.
Given this recommendation, it was decided to reformulate the scale based on three changes:
substitution of the semantic differential, inversion of the items written in the negative sense,
and substitution of item 5.
40
Psychometric validation of a reformulated version of the Thirteen-item Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) in a Mexican student population
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
In the rst place, the semantic differential was replaced by a Likert-type scaling of ve values,
adjusting the wording of the items to the new scaling; this change in the scaling has already
been made by other authors (Getnet & Alem, 2019; Vega et al., 2018). Here is an example of
this change:
Original version: Item 4. So far your life
Has had no clear objectives or goals
at all
Has had very clear objectives and
goals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Reformulated version:
Item N
(0)
CN
(1)
AV
(2)
CS
(3)
S
(4)
4. Until now my life has had clear objectives and goals
Secondly, the items written in a negative sense were replaced by their opposite, so that all
items were in a positive sense, e.g.:
Original version: Item 1. Do you have the impression that you do not really care about the
things that happen around you?
Rarely or never Very often
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Reformulated version:
Item N
(0)
CN
(1)
AV
(2)
CS
(3)
S
(4)
1. I really care about the things that happen around me
At this point it is worth remembering that the investment or establishment of negative items on
a scale to overcome the phenomenon of acquiescence has been considered an inappropriate
procedure (Tomás et al., 2012), despite its popularization. Therefore, in this case, it is decided to
resume the tendency to show all the items in a positive sense and with a single directionality,
41
Arturo Barraza Macías
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
although it is recognized and accepted “the need to look for measurement alternatives that do
not produce acquiescence without inverting items, or reducing these” (Tomás et al., 2012, p. 113).
Thirdly, item 5 was eliminated because it was considered that it did not correctly reect the
content of the dimension (manageability) and one that responded better to said dimension
was added.
Item removed: Item 5. Do you have the impression that you are being treated unfairly?
Very often Rarely or never
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Added item:
Item N CN AV CS S
5. I have at my disposal various supports to face life
These changes are not arbitrary, nor is it the rst time they have been made, the main precedent
is the work carried out with SOC 29, which was modied in relation to the number of items, type
of response of the scale and the substitution of some items, which that gave rise to SOC-13
(Rodríguez, Couto & Díaz, 2015).
This new version of the scale was piloted with fteen students (ve middle school students,
ve undergraduate students, and ve graduate students) to verify vocabulary understanding
and clarity in writing the items. In said piloting no problem was detected.
In the case of item ve, a consultation was made with ve experts in research methodology
and with a doctorate degree in various areas of the social sciences; each of them was sent
the denition of the dimension and the two items (the original and the reformulated) and they
were asked to answer whether or not they corresponded to the dimension. All ve agreed that
the new one was part of the dimension and the original was not.
Once the nal version of the scale was obtained, it was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of
higher education students. Their selection was due to their accessibility based on contacts in
the various institutions. Regardless of the number of students to be surveyed in each institution,
it was proceeded to speak with the directors to explain the objective of the investigation and
assure them that there was no risk for the students surveyed.
Upon having the authorization of the institutional directors, the internal contacts of the institution
itself proceeded to apply it, explaining to the students the voluntary nature of their response.
42
Psychometric validation of a reformulated version of the Thirteen-item Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) in a Mexican student population
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
In none of the cases was there a need to explain anything else since all decided to participate
without requesting any extra explanation.
The application in the School of Medicine and Nutrition of Universidad Juárez del Estado
de Durango, Universidad Pedagógica de Durango and the Benemérita y Centenaria Escuela
Normal del Estado de Durango was given in the very classrooms where the students attend
classes: while the Students identied with the category of another institution responded to
the questionnaire in the cubicle of the institutional contact.
Once the questionnaire was applied, the database was built in the SPSS version 23 program.
There was no need to impute the lost data since in no case did it exceed 5 % (Littlewood &
Bernal, 2014); the item with the highest number of missing data was number four with 1.2 %.
This database was imported into the LISREL 8.80 Student program and the Conrmatory
Factor Analysis was performed; as adequate results were not obtained, various items were
eliminated one by one at the suggestion of the same program to reduce the chi square and
the covariation error. After carrying out six analyzes, a nal version of seven items was reached
that showed a good t of the data to the three-factor model, which were congruent with those
reported in the original scale.
Based on seven items, the following analyzes were carried out in the SPSS program, version
23: (i) the three dimensions reported by this analysis were subjected to a correlational analysis
using Pearson’s r statistic; (ii) descriptive data were obtained of each item from the mean
and standard deviation; (iii) the reliability of the scale was obtained from Cronbach’s alpha
procedures and reliability by halves, according to the Spearman-Brown formula, likewise, the
level reliability of the scale in the event of eliminating an item through Cronbach’s alpha; (iv)
the internal consistency analysis was performed through Pearsons r.
The project that generated this research was approved by the Research Committee of the
author’s institution of assignment, in accordance with the protection of the rights and guarantees
of the research participants, according to section 8.01 of the ethical principles of the American
Psychological Association.
In this project the following provisions were taken into account: the questionnaire was
anonymous and when it was presented, the condentiality of the results was assured; in
the personal data section, information was only requested regarding the sociodemographic
variables that were of interest to characterize the sample and no other type of information was
requested that could compromise their anonymity; in the presentation of the questionnaire it
could be clearly read that its completion was voluntary and therefore they were completely
free to answer it, or not to do so.
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Arturo Barraza Macías
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
On the other hand, and according to article 17, section I, of the Regulation of the General Health
Law on Health Research of Mexico, it is considered that this research can be characterized
as a risk-free research, since in the collection of the information only questionnaires were
used that did not affect or intentionally generate changes in the psychological and/or social
variables of the participants.
Results
First, the Conrmatory Factor Analysis was carried out with the 13 items of the scale. As can
be seen in table 2, there was not a good t of the data to the model. Based on this, and taking
as a basis the recommendations of the program to reduce the chi square and the covariation
error, new analyzes were run eliminating items one by one until reaching six in the following
order: 13, 11, 4, 5, 2 and 1. With the seven-item version, a good t of the data was achieved (Table
2); to these values is added the value of the relationship of the chi-square on the degrees of
freedom (
x
2/df), which in the initial version would be 2.52, while for the nal version it would
be 1.1, so the value of the nal version represents a good t of the model.
Table 2. Values obtained in the Conrmatory Factor Analysis in the two versions (initial and nal) of the
Reformulated Scale of the Sense of Coherence
Scale version
x
2
df p-value RMSEA Confidence
Interval for RMSEA
p-value for test of
close Fit
Initial release of 13
items
156.79 62 0.00000 0.078 0.063-0.094 (RMSEA <0.05)
= 0.0015
Final version of 7 items 12.72 11 0.31194 0.025 0.0-0.073 (RMSEA <0.05)
= 0.75
Source: author own elaboration.
The correlation coecients between dimensions report the following values: r 0.342 p<0.001
for the relation between the comprehensibility and manageability dimensions; r 0.411 p<0.001
for the relation between the manageability and signicance dimensions; and r 0.539 p<0.001
for the relation between the signicance and understandability dimensions. These values are
within the proposed range of usable values so that the analysis by dimensions is conducive
when using this questionnaire.
Once this second version was obtained, it was proceeded to carry out the following analyzes,
already planned, starting with descriptive statistics. As can be seen in table 3, the items with
the greatest presence are “The people I have supported me when it was necessary” and “On
occasions I have felt lucky for the support received”, both items belong to the manageability
44
Psychometric validation of a reformulated version of the Thirteen-item Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) in a Mexican student population
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
dimension; for their part, the items with the least presence were “At this moment I know what
to do in the different situations I am experiencing” and “Doing the things that I do every day
gives me great joy and satisfaction.” The general mean was 3.07, which, transformed into a
percentage, through the simple rule of three, gives us a value of 76.7 %.
Table 3. Descriptive data of the items that make up the seven-item version of the reformulated sense of
coherence scale
Items Average Standard deviation
soc3 3.13 .861
soc6 2.87 .796
soc7 2.88 .7 74
soc8 3.03 .764
soc9 3.05 .943
soc10 3.45 .755
soc12 3.10 .878
Note: the highest means are highlighted in bold and the lowest means in italics. The numbering present in the initial version
is respected.
Source: author own elaboration.
The scale obtained a reliability in Cronbach’s alpha of 0.77 and of 0.79 in the reliability by
halves for an unequal length according to the Spearman-Brown formula. The analysis of the
reliability of the scale, in case of eliminating an item, reported that only in the case of item
3 the reliability coecient in Cronbach’s alpha rises to 0.784, while in all the others it drops.
In the internal consistency analysis, each item was positively correlated (p<0.001) with the
general mean of the scale; the lowest correlation coecient was 0.529 (item 1) and the highest
was 0.700 (item 8).
Discussion
The omnipresence of stress in daily life, and its adverse effects, make it a pressing need to search
for theoretical schemes that allow people to be supported to cope with it in an appropriate
way. However, before proposing lines of action, it is necessary to verify the strength of the
theoretical approach that is intended to be taken as a reference for the intervention.
45
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Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
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The strength of a theory has several edges, including the conceptualization of the variable,
the internal congruence of its postulates, and the instrument used to collect the information.
In this sense, it is particularly important to determine the psychometric properties of the
instruments to be used, not only because of their immediate impact on the development of
a research, but also because of the mediate impact on helping to consolidate a particular
theory. That is why the development of instrumental studies becomes a central piece in the
development of theories.
In the case of this research, which is the salutogenic approach, the analysis of the Sense of
Coherence Scale is considered pertinent, which, in its different versions, has been subjected to
multiple validation processes. In the case of the 13-item version, antecedent research reports
problems in its factorial structure, whether it is investigated at the exploratory or conrmatory
level (Getnet & Alem, 2019; Jakobsson, 2011; Naaldenberg et al., 2011; Velázquez et al., 2014;
Virués-Ortega et al., 2007). In this sense, it was considered convenient to develop the present
validation process, however, as there were problems with the understanding of the items and
the clarity of the answers, in the Mexican population, it was decided to carry out a reformulation
of the scale and submit to validation this version.
The conrmatory factor analysis led to a seven-item version that presented a good t to the
three-factor model (
x
2 = 12.72;
x
2/df = 1.1; p = 0.31194; RMSEA = 0.025); this factorial structure
is in line with that reported by Lizarbe-Chocarro et al. (2016), Malagón et al. (2012), Saravia
et al. (2014) and Vega et al. (2018) for the 13-item version.
A reliability level of 0.77 and 0.79 was obtained in Cronbach’s alpha and in the reliability by
halves, for an unequal length according to the Spearman-Brown formula, respectively. This level
of reliability is considered acceptable, according to the scale of values proposed by George &
Mallery (2003) and is similar to that reported by Velázquez et al. (2014), for their version of
SOC 13 in the Mexican population, and those reported by Saravia et al. (2014) and Vega et al.
(2018) for the original version of SOC 13 in the Spanish-speaking population.
Conclusions
The internal consistency analysis concludes that all the items correlate positively with the
general mean of the scale, thus conrming the homogeneity of the items and their unique
directionality, this in line with the decision to substitute the items in the same direction negative
of the scale for its positive version. This result coincides with those reported by Vega et al.
(2018) and Virués-Ortega et al. (2007) and, as in their cases, all the correlation coecients
are greater than 0.40 and 0.30, respectively.
Based on these results, it can be armed that the Sense of Coherence Scale of seven items,
proposed in this article, has the appropriate psychometric properties to become a serious option
46
Psychometric validation of a reformulated version of the Thirteen-item Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) in a Mexican student population
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 34-49
for measuring the sense of coherence in the Mexican population. Despite the consistency of
these results, it is necessary to recognize the limitations of the present study, the main one
being the focus on a single type of population: higher education students; in this sense, it is
considered pertinent to continue studies in this regard with other types of populations and to
carry out studies of concurrent and divergent validity with other variables of interest.
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