Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-15
DOI: 10.31876/er.v4i35.755
1
Social Sciences pedagogical strategies for
developing research training skills to mitigate
students’ lack of reading
Las ciencias sociales estrategias pedagógicas para el desarrollo de
habilidades formativas en investigación para mitigar la ausencia de lectura
de los estudiantes
Darwin Alexis Cruz García
*
Recibido: 13 de marzo de 2020.
Aprobado: 29 de julio de 2020.
Cite this:
Cruz, D.A. (2020). Social Sciences pedagogical
strategies for developing research training skills
to mitigate students’ lack of reading. Espirales.
Revista Multidisciplinaria de investigación
científica, 4(35), 1-15.
Abstract
This article helps to understand research as an academic
practice by proposing strategies against the weak habit of
reading in training settings and establishes the possibility
of articulating interests in the design of forms and methods
that allow responding to the crisis of interpretation
of social problems. This reection arises from the
phenomenological-hermeneutic methodology with a
social critical approach in a period of two years, training
and accompanying 436 students with 145 proposals for
formative research; the collecting of the information was
through 5 semi-structured interviews with teachers and
50 student surveys. Therefore, this reection is the initial
point of view of a pedagogical proposal that promotes
reading and critical reection exercises.
Key words: Research, reading habits, critical reection,
pedagogical practice.
*
Master in Education. Universidad Minuto de Dios,
Soacha, Colombia.
E-mail: darwin.cruz@uniminuto.edu.
ORCID: 0000-0002-1858-1945.
Google Scholar
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Social Sciences pedagogical strategies for developing research training skills to mitigate students’ lack of reading
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-15
Resumen
El presente artículo ayuda a la comprensión de la investigación como
práctica académica al plantear estrategias frente al débil hábito de la
lectura en escenarios de formación y al establecer la posibilidad de
articular intereses en el diseño de formas y métodos que permitan
dar respuesta a la crisis de interpretación de los problemas sociales.
Esta reexión se plantea desde la metodología fenomenológica-
hermenéutica con un enfoque crítico social en un período de dos
años, formando y acompañando a 436 estudiantes con 145 propuestas
de investigación formativa; la recolección de la información fue por
medio de 5 entrevistas semiestructuradas a docentes y 50 encuestas a
estudiantes. Por tanto, esta reexión es el punto inicial de una propuesta
pedagógica que promueva la lectura y los ejercicios de reexión crítica.
Palabras clave: investigación, hábitos de lectura, reexión crítica,
práctica pedagógica.
Introduction
The social reality of the Colombian context has the urgency in the development of pedagogical
strategies that allow social transformation through research and innovation (Robledo, 2007).
This generates a recognition of the role of social sciences in promoting new readings of reality
that allow us to respond to multiple phenomena (Araya, 2011). For this reason, reecting on
the training processes for progress in investigative skills for social transformation, human
development and social management is of vital importance (Viniegra, 1990).
In this way, social sciences have the challenge of strengthening research for the generation
of new knowledge (Bonilla-Castro & Rodríguez, 2005), if this the case, from the process of
teaching and learning in research the transformation of curricular and pedagogical contents
is considered to be more inclusive of the needs and interests of students (Palacios, 1998).
This means that research training must start from the interest and motivation of the student,
recognizing reection, analysis and interpretation skills for the creation of research proposals
(Amestoy de Sánchez, 2002).
Then, the generation of knowledge in the training processes seeks to generate structures of
contextual, innovative and pertinent thought to the population and territorial demands (Guerrero,
2007), which in turn improve not only in reection but also in the processes developed with the
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Darwin Alexis Cruz García
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-15
communities (Nistal, 2008). In this sense, it is important to build spaces that allow successful
encounters of formative research practices that show progress in the development of reection
skills but also argumentative.
In the same way, social sciences must recognize that the research procedures make a contribution
in the disciplinary and the professional in the perspective of knowledge construction (Roa-
Mendoza, 2016), but also the role that students play in the spaces of reection to the design
of investigative methods that materialize ways and forms of seeing and interpreting reality in
response to gaps in knowledge and demands of professional practice.
Thus, the central axis for social sciences in research training is the recognition of students’ skills
(Balbo, 2008), which allow them to contribute to knowledge through the use of instruments
and tools given by the discipline in the critical and innovative reection of social realities in the
eld (Vera, 2014). However, the skills of students in research training in social sciences arise in
the little love for reading, problems in writing and weaknesses in argumentation (Reyes, 2013).
In this way, research becomes a challenge and fundamental function of the social sciences
(Zemelman, 2001), because it allows students to develop and strengthen critical, proactive and
inclusive thinking in new ways of understanding social realities (Beltrán-Llavador, Íñigo-Bajos
& Mata-Segreda, 2014). In this way, it becomes a duty of social sciences to not only identify
the shortcomings of students but also to propose different ways or channels that strengthen
investigative procedures (González et al., 2004).
Thus, the reective analysis of the studentsreading skills allows us to understand the evolution
of the research (Ramírez, 2009), where the training process is the setting through which
knowledge can be communicated or transmitted (Ordóñez et al., 2007). This should aim at
comprehensive training to develop skills, habits and aptitudes that have been able to undertake
and participate effectively in research procedures.
Therefore, the challenge lies in the rigorousness that the students pose in the procedures to
generate a systematic analysis of reality, which contributes considerably to the professional
intervention practices in rigorous and disciplined actions (Serrano, 2000). This exercise has
allowed the identication of student attitudes such as anxiety, disgust and frustration against
research work (Aldana & Joya, 2011), these are acquired and learned throughout the student’s
life and raised in research training a challenge against experience determining the proximity
with the exercise of research (Blanco & Alvarado, 2005).
In this way, it is important to contribute to the accumulation of knowledge generated from
and for the practice of social sciences by means of research (Batthyány et al., 2011), based on
motivation versus the consolidation of habits of critical reection of the objects of study of
interest. Understanding that training must be understood as focused and organized actions
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Social Sciences pedagogical strategies for developing research training skills to mitigate students’ lack of reading
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-15
that guide and facilitate the appropriation and development of knowledge through skills and
attitudes that are based on an individual interest (Guerrero, 2007).
In this sense, it seeks to promote the capacity for reection and analysis to carry out certain
tasks in the investigative procedure (Osses, Sánchez & Ibáñez, 2006), such as bibliographic
tracking, construction of concepts or categories and the development of objectives, that is,
knowing how to structure an investigative procedure. This allows to pose as a question for
reection, How Social Sciences promote pedagogical strategies for the development of training
skills in research to mitigate the absence of reading by students?
Thus, within the theoretical review, it is evidenced that consolidating capacities in a model of
competencies about the research process is made explicit from academic exercises (Gallardo,
2008), such as study groups and research hotbeds that contribute to the strengthening of
research skills. In this proposal, an approach to reality is proposed from a curious attitude not
limited by prejudices before the exercise of investigating a social context, and also a process
of recognition of sources of information, which allow through, of reading a situated and truthful
learning exercise (Teberosky, 2007).
In this sense, the experience of working in real contexts allows the student to put their skills
and abilities to the test in relation to their theoretical knowledge (Estrada, 2014), enabling the
construction of an investigative procedure from their interests that begins with the identication
of the topic to the methodological procedure to respond to the knowledge gap proposed in
the research question (Padua, 2018).
In this way, the reader can identify the researcher’s skills (Rivas, 2011), understood as the
practical ability of a student in the investigative procedure of observing, listening and recording
information according to the object of study (Rodríguez, 2003). This is relevant in the exercise
of delimitating and targeting a study object, which is based on the student’s interest (Booth
et al., 2008).
That is, lack of experience in investigation procedures should not impede the value of discovering,
and generating a new knowledge of the realities requires being able to identify that all human
beings possess investigative skills (Martínez & Márquez, 2014). Thus, a research exercise
must start from a primary and disciplined procedure that emphasizes reading, with a purely
exploratory character (Argudín & Luna, 1994).
Therefore, one of the actions that must be taken in the investigative procedure is to consolidate
the habit of reading (Gatti, 2005), being a challenge for the social sciences in the current
context (Martínez & Márquez, 2014). Where, young people associate the exercise of reading
with boredom (Teberosky, 2007), this enhances the imaginary of relating reading as an activity
linked more by obligation than by the own will that the researcher must have (Iturrizaga, 2012).
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Finally, the above regains strength when many students in training do not give importance
to the reading exercise (Roque et al., 2012), showing weaknesses in the argumentation
without theoretical foundations, in the weak identication of theoretical references since
they limit their search to the former found on the internet without ltering or simply making
the decision not to read. Consequently, this results in the weakness and not goodness of the
investigative procedure.
Materials and Methods
In this way, this reection arises from the phenomenological-hermeneutic methodology
supported by the notion of lived experience (Carabajo, 2008), in the formative accompaniment
determining as interest the identication of habits in reading, abstraction and content articulation,
which allow formulating thesis with arguments. In this sense, it was sought to promote the
capacity for reection and analysis in carrying out specic tasks such as bibliographic search,
construction of concepts or categories (Cárcamo, 2005).
The approach used in this reection is the social critic according to Cebotarev (2003), the
intention is to explore the reading bases of students in training in social sciences in the
investigative procedure and the uses of critical thinking, dened as an analytical and self-
reective method (Melero, 2012). Thus, the relevance of this approach raised the possibility
of identifying the skills developed in research training through the habit of reading.
This reection is supported thanks to the work done during two years, training and accompanying
the academic practice in research to 436 students with 145 proposals for formative research
of the Social Work program of Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios (Centro Regional
Soacha). Where research is recognized as a procedure that goes beyond the classroom (Díaz,
2018), this develops an academic experience for the social sciences that allows direct contact
with realities, academic technical teams and institutions.
That is, research as academic practice proposes the need for continuous and timely support
from teachers to students to obtain consistent knowledge (Prieto, 2004). In this way, the
collection of information was proposed with the categorization of these 145 proposals in a
research matrix and the application of a perception survey to 50 students of fourth and fth
semester of the Social Work program, these students were selected randomly.
Consequently, this is contrasted with the information provided by 5 teachers from the Social
Work program who are part of the research training process and enrich reection. In this
way, the information is collected through 5 semi-structured interviews with teachers and the
application of 50 surveys to students, crossing it with the 145 proposals.
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Social Sciences pedagogical strategies for developing research training skills to mitigate students’ lack of reading
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol. 4, No. 35
Octubre-diciembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-15
Therefore, this exercise allowed to know the reality of the pedagogical strategies in research
in the social sciences, given in an environment of trust that minimizes the risk that students
are afraid or complicate the investigation but, on the contrary, develop proposals that allow
the honesty and simplicity in the realities that are the object of knowledge, generating critical
subjects in the face of the construction of research spaces and the incidence or changes in
the construction of social realities.
Results
Consequently, this reection allowed to identify the scenario of research training in the
Social Work program through six lines of research such as training and praxis in Social Work,
contemporary subject, critical social thought, culture and politics, community, poverty and
family problems and Minuto de Dios thought. This allows to give a context to the interest for the
development of skills, habits and aptitudes in students capable of undertaking and participating
effectively in research projects, this suggests that knowledge of realities in 38.4 % of students
allows a more rewarding and meaningful experience in their training, generating a broader
and more complete vision of the different social dynamics (Amestoy de Sánchez, 2002).
This is based on the type of skills that students develop, since 53.8 % promote the skill in the
habit of reading through a change in behavior (Argudín & Luna, 1994). Where 30.7 % state
that knowledge makes it more competitive in research settings (Balbo, 2008), raising the
responsibility of social sciences to be changing to the demands of realities (Gallardo, 2008) and
to the need of students in training to develop skills that allow assertive responses to personal,
institutional and social dynamics. Consequently, it is identied that 23 % of the respondents
state that when they develop reading, what generally happens is that they develop critical
skill (Martínez & Márquez, 2014). In this way, the research teaching-learning process in social
science scenarios focuses on the interest of students through the arrangement, ordering and
sequences of ideas in an original, exible and feasible way in the spaces of reection (Blanco
& Alvarado, 2005), where 60 % of teachers state that students’ research initiatives are good
since they manage to identify and interpret social realities allowing to recognize the importance
of the procedure in a knowledge gap (Osses, Sánchez & Ibáñez, 2006).
It is also identied that 75.3 % of students recognize the non-habit of reading and knowledge
gaps, articulated to ignorance in the search classication in 45 %, to the non-development of
bibliographic search in 35 %, to little interest in reading in 15 %. In this way, 40 % of teachers
state that reading comprehension is regular or bad, associating diculties in methodological
resources for understanding and reection on social realities.
Then, social sciences raise the need to seek the way in which research experiences mediate
and transform learning, as a result, 30.6 % of students identify the relevance of knowledge and
critical skill already that allows to identify misinterpretation or gaps in knowledge to understand
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reality. In this way, formative research experiences generate processes that modify behaviors,
through the strengthening of skills, values and attitudes of students (Aldana & Joya, 2011).
This exercise shows a signicant advance in academic practices in research in social sciences
and a marked interest of students in investigating issues related to community, poverty and
family problems with 48.3 %, where the reection of social reality starts from a theoretical
review that requires instrumental knowledge that congures the action in real contexts from
an approach.
In this way, a strategy that has been effective in investigative training according to 80 % of
teachers is the generation of a collective and open space that seeks to strengthen the capacity
for argumentation, supported by rigorous, informed reection and structured of individual
research experience. This points to the importance of objectivity and distance from the object
of study to access new knowledge with the claim of truth (Rivas, 2011).
In this way, the rst step to transform reading habits, according to 87 % of students, is taken
by selecting a topic that motivates them to carry out an investigative procedure, depending
on their interests. This provides the development of two clear actions, the rst the search in
learning and two to make relevant progress in the dened social realities (Salazar, 2000).
That is, the rst step consists of individually recognizing the stimuli and efforts that motivate
the exercise of reading (González & Vega, 2010), bearing in mind that it is not easy, due to the
existence of conditions such as non-habit in 95 %, the level of education of parents in 45 %
and the lack of demand in academic spaces in 30 %. The foregoing strengthens the imaginary
of relating reading as an activity linked more by training compliance than by the relevance it
has in the procedure (Guerrero, 2007).
Therefore, aspects that predispose students in the approach to reading have been consolidated,
where 75 % indicate that they have not been to a library, 85 % does not have knowledge in
database search and 87 % say they do not read scientic content, these are aspects that
increase the little desire to appropriate the investigative procedure. In fact, one of the great
barriers when training begins is the resistance of the majority of students to the development
of the act of reading, with which, the very essence of the act of reading is lost and there is a
risk of failing to do efforts to encourage it (Salazar, 2000).
Thus, the great challenge of social sciences that train in research is to provide new tools or
instruments that enhance skills and practices of reection, understanding and analysis of
social realities (Gatti, 2005). This arises from a friendly and simple exercise that recognizes
the need to design tools that can facilitate the mental processing of information, the exercise
of understanding and abstraction of content (Bonilla & Rodríguez, 2005).
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Social Sciences pedagogical strategies for developing research training skills to mitigate students’ lack of reading
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In this sense, this allows the development of a pedagogical proposal that promotes critical
reading and the recognition of students in modifying the commitment time (Teberosky, 2007),
the importance of it and the recognition of the diculties that arise in the exercise to read
(Reyes, 2013), working exercises for reection and understanding of social realities (Amestoy
de Sánchez, 2002).
Consequently, one of the rst works in the investigative procedure is the promotion of critical
reading, calling for the social sciences to enhance the exercises from the perspective of
interpretation and knowledge production (González & Vega, 2010). This suggests that
institutions today lack reection, understanding, transformation and innovation through
research in different local contexts (Carlino, 2005).
In this sense, the reection of social reality starts from a theoretical review that requires
instrumental knowledge (Nistal, 2008), where the action is congured in real contexts from
reading (Iturrizaga, 2012). In this way, habits are a broad concept derived from the disciplinary
eld in the social sciences that allow to account for different constructions to see reality and
intervene in it, they constitute new views on various phenomena (Ramírez, 2009).
Therefore, the exercise of reading according to 97 % of the students, having completed
the training process, relate it to the fact that it provides the organization of ideas, helps to
establish sequences of texts, and in the development of synthesis capacity. In this way, social
sciences should generate instruments such as reviews or reading cards that make it possible
to demonstrate the student’s assessment of a text, identify causal relationships and capture
the meaning of the author’s arguments (González et al., 2004).
It is here, where reading takes hold as interactive processing, where students are active subjects
who use information related to their topic of interest, construct meanings from their conceptual
schemes and their knowledge of reality in contrast to data that provide the texts, for the
elaboration of meanings.
Discussion
Thus, an investigation can be considered valid depending on the degree of accuracy of the
description of the study subjects, on the kindness and achievement of the answer to the research
question, on the adjustment of tools and techniques used in the investigative procedure, as
well as the ability to corroborate the conclusions with evidence (González, 2002). In other
words, the reading exercise allows reaching a state of understanding of reality necessary to
overcome the diculties that arise in the researcher’s work (Taylor & Bogdan, 1987).
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In others, researchers can criticize, evaluate or judge what has been read in relation to the content
or the author, by means of questions, making it possible to judge whether or not they agree
with the messages, or relate what they read to other readings or to other situations (Pachón,
1998). So, when they start the research procedure, many think that reading is understanding
what the author says and repeating it without variations, thereby losing the very essence of
the act of reading and running the risk of failing in efforts to encourage it (Salazar, 2000).
In this way, the consensus that must develop between the reading habit and the students
imaginations is characterized by being a process where the reader is the protagonist, in a
process that develops in a suspended communication model, in the one that intervenes
the reader, text and author triad (Solé, 2000). Thus, research practices need a pedagogical
orientation so that the research procedure is easily accessible for students and they can
transfer without diculty from one academic space to another and from one need to another
(González & Vega, 2010).
This arms that students are part of the academic community by virtue of the appropriation
of their forms of reasoning and discursive practices (Carlino, 2005), where it is important to
point out the subject-object relationship, in which the object it takes on signicance when the
subject is interested in it (Araujo, 2007). This develops a conception in the understanding of
a world within determined contexts, where the changing and mutable character of reality and
the diversity of the social open the possibility of the emergence of the new (Mucchielli, 2001).
Finally, the scientic research method raises processes of reasoning and questioning, which
begins with the abstraction of a new fact, little known, insuciently explained in a given
context, which raises a need to be conrmed and observed through reading. Consequently, this
approach which the student has in front of the units or categories of analysis are supported
and argued in this reective exercise that recognizes research as a process of knowledge
production whose basis is reading (Sánchez & Lahitte, 2013).
Conclusions
Consequently, the rst thesis in the investigative procedure is based on the need that the
researcher has to dene a topic of interest that facilitates movement and constant reection
on reality, thus nding motivation to face the different challenges that research requires. That
is why the development of changes in different habits must be recognized, initially in the habit
of reading.
Therefore, the little or no habit of reading initially develops processes of frustration and
impotence in the investigative procedure, identifying a problem, which has a solution based
on the individual will of the student to strengthen that habit and that with the approach of
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Social Sciences pedagogical strategies for developing research training skills to mitigate students’ lack of reading
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strategies in social sciences, the necessary environment can be developed for the student to
form the necessary competencies for the understanding of social realities.
In this way, reading allows the student to adjust to the investigative procedures, since it is the
element that stimulates and expands the understanding of reality, allowing the generation of
favorable dispositions towards the recognition of the object of study. Thus, the great challenge
of social sciences is to generate new tools or instruments that enhance skills and practices
of reection, understanding and analysis of realities.
Finally, students nd a greater demand in the comprehension and production of texts through
reviews and/or les, since they promote the articulation of reading and writing processes that
favor the research procedure. This guides the researcher in the search for information through
databases, support in virtual platforms and visits to libraries.
Consequently, the social sciences must formulate research routes that cross the curriculum,
seeking in turn to guide and enhance the work of students in research procedures. In this way, it
gives students in the framework of social sciences condence in the appropriate and pertinent
knowledge to carry out in an informed way the formative research, being a central element
of the professionalization that species the purposes of in the construction of knowledge.
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