Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
DOI: 10.31876/er.v4i34.748
14
Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist
attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba
Binational Technical Training Center
Evaluación multicriterio de los recursos y atractivos turísticos de la zona
adyacente al Centro Binacional de Formación Técnica Zapotepamba
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo
*
, Maruxi Loarte Tene
**
, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre
***
,
Jhohana Larrea Silva
****
, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
*****
Recibido: 19 de abril de 2019.
Aprobado: 17 de agosto de 2020
Cite this:
Zhingre, H. et al. (2020). Multi-criteria evaluation
of the resources and tourist attractions of the area
adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical
Training Center. Espirales. Revista Multidisciplinaria
de investigación cientíca, 4(34), 14-34
*
Tourism Administration Engineer. Universidad
Nacional de Loja, Loja, Ecuador.
E-mail: hilda.zhingre@unl.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0001-6900-7364.
Google Scholar
**
Master in Tourism Planning. Universidad Nacional
de Loja, Loja, Ecuador.
E-mail: mloarte@unl.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0002-1033-8115.
Google Scholar
***
Master in Evaluation of Projects for Development.
Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja, Ecuador.
E-mail: ruben.roman@unl.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0001-6736-2231.
Google Scholar
****
Master in Project Management for Development.
Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja, Ecuador.
E-mail: jhohana.larrea@unl.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0003-3472-363X.
Google Scholar
*****
Master in Territorial Planning and Environmental
Management. Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja,
Ecuador.
E-mail: jjsanchez33@utpl.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0002-1946-9795.
Google Scholar
Abstract
This research it seeks the sustainable development
of the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training
Center (CBFTZ), through comprehensive landscape
management. The methodology applied to collect
information was through a quantitative and qualitative
approach. With this, a situational diagnosis of the
adjacent parishes was made; likewise, an inventory of
resources and tourist statistics; nally, the multi-criteria
evaluation. Once the assessment was carried out, it was
identied that in terms of natural and cultural interest, the
resources with the greatest tourist potential are found
in the Catacocha Parish.
Key words: Tourist potential, multi-criteria assessment,
tourist resources, Zapotepamba.
15
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Resumen
La presente investigación busca el desarrollo sostenible del Centro
Binacional de Formación Técnica Zapotepamba (CBFTZ) a través
del manejo integral del paisaje. La metodología que se aplicó para
el levantamiento de la información fue a través de un enfoque
cuantitativo y cualitativo. Con ello se hizo un diagnóstico situacional
de las parroquias adyacentes; además de un inventario de recursos
y atractivos turísticos; por último, la evaluación multicriterio. Una vez
realizada la valoración se identicó que en términos de interés natural
y cultural los recursos con mayor potencial turístico se encuentran
en la parroquia Catacocha.
Palabras clave: potencial turístico, valoración multicriterio, recursos
turísticos, Zapotepamba.
Introduction
According to Zuluaga (2006) “Tourism is a mass social phenomenon, which has become for
some countries an important and basic factor for their economy” (p. 77). But it is important
to manage processes that lead us to adequate planning and proper use of tourist attractions
and resources in a sustainable way. On the other hand, it is important to know the tourist
development capacity of a territory because it is “directly related to the will of the actors
to establish relationships between them, jointly and coordinately involved in improving the
conditions of the territory to assume the challenges derived from these processes” (Merinero
& Pulido, 2009, p. 174). According to Varisco (2008), the tourist development of a place can
be dened as the improvement of services and facilities to satisfy the tourist’s needs, as well
as the effects such as the generation of employment and therefore the income from tourist
activities.
On the other hand, when talking about tourism, it is talking about tourism planning, since it is
important to take into account the tools and techniques that help us evaluate and prioritize
the resources of a territory to give it potential value. Therefore, for the development of many
investigations, multi-criteria evaluations have been taken as a tool, which are a set of instruments
that allow evaluating different alternatives in order to arrive at concrete decisions. “This
methodology has been widely used in socio-environmental studies, in natural risk assessment
and in determining the ideal location for service facilities (among others, those that are linked to
the incorporation of services in education)” (Joo & Alvarado, 2013, p. 144). In this research, this
methodology will be applied to evaluate the potential of the tourist attractions and resources.
16
Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
The study area includes Canton Paltas, the same that is one of the cantons of Loja province,
which is located in the Inter-Andean Alley of the Ecuadorian Sierra, west of the city of Loja.
Paltas, like most cantons, is an agricultural, livestock and commercial producer, which has a
great variety of ora, fauna and a wealth of its cultural and natural heritage. It bears this name
due to the presence of the pre-Inca Palta ethnic group, which constitutes the fundamental
element of ethnography and provincial history.
Through a previous survey, it was quickly identied that Canton Paltas has a wide variety of
natural and cultural tourism resources, but lacks tourism promotion and the lack of interest
in them generates a limited supply and, therefore, low demand. Another disadvantage
found is the lack of proposals for tourism projects; for this reason, it can be formulated as
a research question. How does the absence of a multi-criteria evaluation affect the use of
the tourist resources of Canton Paltas? Thus, this research aims to make an assessment
of the tourism potential of the natural and cultural resources of Canton Paltas, which will
later help future research.
The application of the multi-criteria evaluation allowed us to know that in terms of the natural
and cultural interest with the greatest tourist potential that Canton Paltas has, it is the Binational
Technical Training Center Zapotepamba, since it has all the necessary accesses, adequate
infrastructure, basic services and programs or agricultural activities, which tourists can enjoy.
Multi-criteria decision techniques are a rational and objective instrument both to improve the
understanding of the decision processes that underlie systemic processes, and to help decision-
making centers to address the necessary comparison between alternatives (Cabello, 2017).
According to Chakhar (2003) (quoted in Ramírez, 2007):
all MCE (Multi-criteria Evaluation) techniques consist of a rst stage, of the design of a matrix with
the dened criteria and alternatives; the next stage consists in the aggregation of the different
scores of the criteria, with the use of a specic aggregation procedure (the application of some
MCE technique), taking into account the preference of the decision makers expressed in terms
of weights assigned to the different criteria; that procedure or technique allows the decision
maker to compare between the different alternatives based on the assigned weights. (p. 36)
According to Franco-Maass et al. (2009):
The use of this multi-criteria evaluation methodology in the tourism eld is little applied, and
according to the document reviews it can be armed that it has a greater diffusion in terms of
evaluating environmental problems, health, territory, among others. Thus, its greatest acceptance
is in the Geographic Information System (GIS for its acronym in Spanish. (p. 214)
17
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Below there are some reviews of studies that have addressed topics similar to the purpose
of this work. A review classied by country is developed.
Among the multiple works of this type, it is possible to mention the one presented by Franco-
Maass et al. (2009) in Nevado de Toluca National Park-Mexico, it was decided to carry out a
complete evaluation procedure, elaborating in the rst instantiate the inventory and based
on the information obtained in the eld. Secondly, the intrinsic and extrinsic criteria were
dened for each type of resource and a set of analysis attributes was constructed and the
decision matrix was prepared. The application of the weighted linear combination led to the
nal ranking of the resources and the identication of those that had tourism potential. The
results obtained reveal that La Peñuela and the crater of the extinct volcano contain the highest
rated resources, determined by the weight of the intrinsic attributes.
In Mexico, Arciniega, Osorio & Regil (2016) they carried out a study to evaluate the tourist
resources of the municipality of San Pedro Lagunillas in the State of Nayarit, so they applied
the multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methodology since it is precise for these types of studies,
it was carried out in phases in this way; the rst one made an inventory of the resources that
the parish had; subsequently, with the attributes matrix, the evaluation was carried out in order
to propose a tourist product based on the resource with the greatest potential. The resource
that obtained the best score was the Luis Donaldo Colosio Ecological Park.
Then, another work explores the inventory of attractions by applying the multi-criteria evaluation
methodology (MCE) with a focus on a tourist product, from the Sierra de Nanchititla State
Park, State of Mexico, for this purpose, a research was carried out to collect information
from the eld of hierarchical tourist attractions; subsequently, the multi-criteria evaluation
methodology was applied, allowing the identication of the resources that stand out over
which work must be done to develop tourist products that generate sustainable economic
alternatives (Enríquez et al., 2010).
Continuing with the studies, Vanegas et al. (2017) with their research called: Multi-criteria
evaluation and inventory of tourist attractions, Case study, at rst an inventory of attractions
was carried out, using the multi-criteria of decisions method based on the required inputs to
design the proposal for a tourist promotion route for the municipality of Itagui. A decomposition
of complex structures into their simplest components was made to obtain an assessment of
attributes of tourist destinations, both qualitative and quantitative; which were hierarchically
ordered to establish logical processes in decision making. From the work carried out, it is
corroborated how the evaluation and inventory of tourist resources becomes a relevant tool
to direct the planning and tourism development processes of the regions.
In summary, the review of studies from different countries shows that there are many
investigations that are based on determining the tourism potential of each region in
18
Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
order to, through the results, propose a tourism product that helps the development of
tourism in the area, for which, an inventory of tourist attractions, field work, interviews,
data collection had to be carried out; likewise, the multi-criteria evaluation methodology
(MCE) was used, which is based on the intrinsic and extrinsic components. It is worth
mentioning that all the aforementioned studies are related to this research and which
will be used to base and guide.
Materials and Methods
The methodology used was a quantitative and qualitative approach. With this, a situational
diagnosis of Canton Paltas was made; likewise, an inventory of tourist resources and attractions
and nally the multi-criteria evaluation following the stages it has.
For the development of this research, a bibliographic review of all the tourist attractions of the
Canton Paltas was rst carried out, in books and in the Ministry of Tourism; as well as general
data of the canton. In the same way, a bibliographic review of articles related to multi-criteria
evaluation was carried out in order to base the theory on the results found in this research.
For the inventory of the resources and tourist attractions of Canton Paltas, the methodology
of the Ministry of Tourism of Ecuador 2018 was used. With this it was possible to demonstrate
that there are 27 tourist attractions of which 14 are cultural and 13 natural.
Based on the Multi-criteria Evaluation methodology described above, an evaluation procedure
was carried out that included the following stages:
Once the set of alternatives has been dened, the next step to follow is to establish the
set of extinct and intrinsic criteria to be used to evaluate tourist resources and attractions.
The intrinsic allow the specic characteristics of each resource to be analyzed according
to their nature, such as the visual elements linked to the space (vegetation, extension and
transparency of water); terrain characteristics (grade, type of surface and degree of diculty);
additional dimensions and attractions. The extrinsic ones instead analyze recreational-
tourist variables based on the conditions of use (Bote, 2002). Likewise, Zamorano (2002)
refers to the extrinsic criteria: conditions of access, degree of conservation, conditions of
use and recreation and security.
These two types of criteria have been adapted to the characteristics of Canton Paltas resources.
Table 1 shows the criteria established for the two categories.
19
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Table 1. Intrinsic and extrinsic criteria for the evaluation of tourism resources
Intrinsic criteria
Resource type Criterion Attribute Description
Terrestrial a) Coverage a
1
) Vegetation Abundant (A)
Sucient (S)
Little (E)
b) Ground conditions b
1
)
Gradient Very Inclined (MI)
Inclined (I)
Something Inclined (AI)
Plane (P)
b
2
)
Surface Stony (Pe)
Dirt Road (T)
Wet (H)
Compact (C)
Grassland (Pa)
Other (O)
b
3
)
Diculty High (A)
Medium (M)
Low (B)
Aquatic (water ows) c) Characteristics c
1
) Width Meters
c
2
) Transparency Crystalline (C)
Semi Turbid (S)
Turbid (T)
c
3
) Visible extent 1 to 3 m. (A)
3 to 6 m. (B)
6 to 10 m (C)
More than 10 m (D)
d) Additional appeal d
1
) Fauna Yes (S)
No (N)
Cultural manifestations e) Characteristics e
1
) Traditional state Excellent (E)
Good (B)
Bad (M)
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Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Intrinsic criteria
Resource type Criterion Attribute Description
e
2
) Diffusion Local (L)
Regional (R)
National (N)
International (I)
e
3
) Community
participation
Yes (S)
No (N)
c) Promotion f
1
) Promotion means Web (W)
TV (T)
Radio (R)
Magazines (Re)
Extrinsic criteria
Criterion Attribute
Physical access g
1
) Distance
g
2
) Time
Possibilities of
appreciation
h
1
) State of conservation
h
2
) Environment quality
h
3
) Fragility
h
4
) Contamination
Infrastructure and
services
i
1
) Signaling
i
2
) Equipment
i
3
) Recreational facilities
i
4
) Activities
Security j
1
) Surveillance
Source: Franco-Maass et al. (2009, p. 217)
Once the variables and attributes to be considered were dened according to the information
obtained in the eld, the matrix was obtained with the qualitative or quantitative characterization
of each resource for each of the criteria. Table 2 below presents the characterization of the
intrinsic criteria based on the type and name of the resources.
21
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Table 2. Construction of the intrinsic criteria for the analysis
Means Criteria
Terrestrial (Hills, ravines, parks, etc.) Vegetation Gradient Surface Diculty
a
1 (1)
b
1
(2) b
2
(3) b
3
( 4)
(Forest) Bosque Zapotepamba S P O B
(Mount) Cerro Chamba S I H M
(Hill) Loma La Capilla E AI T B
(Hill) Loma Mayor E AI Pe M
(Forest) Bosque Suquinda A AI Pa M
(Mount) Cerro Guanchuro A AI H B
(Mount) Cerro Padre Hurco S MI Pe M
(Mount) Cerro Tarimbo S AI H B
(Rock) Peña Shiriculapo A AI Pe B
(Mount) Cerro Pisaca A AI T B
Aquatic (Water Flows) Width Transparency Visible extent Fauna
c
1
c
2
(5) c
3
(6) d
1
(7)
(Stream) Chorro el Almendral 1 m C B N
(Waterfall) Cascada de las Mariposas 4 m S A S
(Waterfall) Cascadas de las Minas 3 m S A S
Cultural manifestations Traditional state Diffusion Community
participation
Media
e
1
(8) e
2
(9) e
3
(10) f
1
(11)
Zapotepamba Binational Technical
Training Center (Centro Binacional
de Formación Técnica Zapotepamba)
E R S W
National Institute for Agricultural
Research (Instituto Nacional de
investigaciones Agropecuarias)
R R S W
22
Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
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Means Criteria
Yamana Heritage Houses (Casas
patrimoniales de Yamana)
B L S W
Yamana Central Church (Iglesia
Central de Yamana)
B L S R
Image sharing E L S R
Barrial Blanco Petroglyphs (Petroglifos
del Barrial Blanco)
B L N W
Rinconada Petroglyphs (Petroglifos de
la Rinconada)
M L N W
Polo Petroglyphs (Petroglifos Polo) B L N W
Fatima Lookout (Mirador de Fátima) B L S W
Catacocha Heritage Houses (Casas
Patrimoniales de Catacocha)
E N S W
Matriz Catacocha Church (Iglesia
Matriz Catacocha)
B L S W
Joaquin Leiba brothers museum
(Museo de los hermanos Joaquin
Leiba)
B L S W
Indio Paltense M L N W
Tasines de Playas alto B L N W
Source: author’s own elaboration.
Similarly, based on the variables already established and eld work, it has been possible to
construct the matrix with extrinsic criteria for each of the resources that the Canton Paltas
possesses. Table 3 establishes the characterization of the extrinsic criteria.
23
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Table 3. Construction of extrinsic criteria for analysis
Resources Criteria
Physical access Possibilities of
appreciation
Infrastructure and
services
Security
Terrestrial
(Hills, ravines, parks, etc)
g
1
g
2
h
1
(1) h
2
(2) h
3
(3) h
4
(4) i
1
(5) i
2
(5) i
3
(6) i
4
j
1
(7)
(Forest) Bosque
Zapotepamba
26.7 km 35m R B A S I A A 5 Mo
(Mount) Cerro Chamba 26.7 km 35 m B B M N I N B 4 Mo
(Hill) Loma La Capilla 24.5 km 29 m R R M N N N B 1 I
(Hill) Loma Mayor 19.9 km 23 m B O M N N N B 4 I
(Forest) Bosque Suquinda 19.6 km 26 m B O M N A I B 3 S
(Mount) Cerro Guanchuro 4.3 km 15 m E O A N I I B 2 Mo
(Mount) Cerro Padre
Hurco
7.1 km 13 m R B M N I I B 1 I
(Mount) Cerro Tarimbo 14.3 km 17 m B B M N N I B 1 I
(Rock) Peña Shiriculapo 0.35 km 4 m E O M S S S M 3 M
(Mount) Cerro Pisaca 12 km 20 m E B M N I I M 2 I
Aquatic (Water Flows)
(Stream) Chorro el
Almendral
19 km 29 m B B MA S A I B 1 I
(Waterfall) Cascada de
las Mariposas
19.6 km 26 m R B MA S A N B 1 I
(Waterfall) Cascadas de
las Minas
19 km 20 m R R MA S N N B 1 I
Cultural manifestations
Zapotepamba Binational
Technical Training Center
(Centro Binacional de
Formación Técnica
Zapotepamba)
26 km 29 m E O A N A S M 7 M
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Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Resources Criteria
Physical access Possibilities of
appreciation
Infrastructure and
services
Security
National Institute for
Agricultural Research
(Instituto Nacional
de investigaciones
Agropecuarias)
26.9 km 29 m B B MA S I A A 1 M
Yamana Heritage Houses
(Casas patrimoniales de
Yamana)
18.5 km 15 m B B A S N A M 1 S
Yamana Central Church
(Iglesia Central de
Yamana)
18. 9 km 15 m B R A S N A B 2 S
Image sharing 21.7 km 31 m B O B S N I B 1 I
Barrial Blanco
Petroglyphs (Petroglifos
del Barrial Blanco)
21.7 km 31 m B B A N I N B 2 I
Rinconada Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos de la
Rinconada)
19km 20 m B B M S A I B 2 I
Polo Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos Polo)
19. 4 km 26 m R R MA S A I B 1 Mo
Fatima Lookout (Mirador
de Fátima)
1.7 km 10 m B O B S I I B 2 I
Catacocha Heritage
Houses (Casas
Patrimoniales de
Catacocha)
1 km 5 m E O MA S A S B 3 S
Matriz Catacocha Church
(Iglesia Matriz Catacocha)
1 km 10 m E O MA N A S M 2 S
Joaquin Leiba brothers
museum (Museo de los
hermanos Joaquin Leiba)
3 km 2 m B B M N A A B 3 S
Indio Paltense 2 km 3 m B R B N I I B 1 I
25
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Resources Criteria
Physical access Possibilities of
appreciation
Infrastructure and
services
Security
Tasines de Playas alto 10 km 5 m R R M S N N B 2 I
[1]
E =
Excellent
B = Good
R =
Regular
M = Bad
[2]
O =
Optimum
G = Good
R = Regular
L = Low
[3]
MA = Very
high
H = High
M =
Moderate
B = Low
[4]
Y = Yes
N = No
[5]
S =
Sucient
A = Some
I =
Insucient
N = None
[6]
A =
Recreational
facilities
M =
Elements
capable of
recreation
B = No
recreational
place
[7]
M = Very safe
S = Safe
Mo = Moderate
I = Unsafe
Source: author’s own elaboration.
Once the criteria tabulation was done, it was proceeded to transform them on a scale between
1 and 10. The value of each attribute represents the degree to which each alternative meets
the assessment objective, with 10 being the maximum possible value and 1 the minimum
value, thereby obtaining the matrix.
Table 4. Decision matrix with normalized values
Resources Intrinsic attributes
Terrestrial (Hills, ravines, parks, etc.) va1 vb1 vb2 vb3 Summation Average 40 %
(Forest) Bosque Zapotepamba 9.0 8.0 2.5 3.0 22.5 5.6 2.3
(Mount) Cerro Chamba 9.0 6.0 3.5 7.0 25.5 6.4 2.6
(Hill) Loma La Capilla 5.0 7.5 8.0 6.5 27.0 6.8 2.7
(Hill) Loma Mayor 5.0 7.5 7.0 6.7 26.2 6.6 2.6
(Forest) Bosque Suquinda 10.0 9.0 5.0 5.0 29.0 7.3 2.9
(Mount) Cerro Guanchuro 10.0 8.0 4.0 3.0 25.0 6.3 2.5
(Mount) Cerro Padre Hurco 9.0 6.0 7.5 6.5 29.0 7.3 2.9
(Mount) Cerro Tarimbo 9.0 7.5 4.0 3.0 23.5 5.9 2.4
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Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
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Resources Intrinsic attributes
Terrestrial (Hills, ravines, parks, etc.) va1 vb1 vb2 vb3 Summation Average 40 %
(Rock) Peña Shiriculapo 10.0 10.0 9.0 3.0 32.0 8.0 3.2
(Mount) Cerro Pisaca 10.0 10.0 8.0 1.0 29.0 7.3 2.9
Aquatic (Water Flows) vc1 vc2 vc3 vd1 Summation Average 40%
(Stream) Chorro el Almendral 4.0 8.0 6.0 1.5 19.5 4.9 2.0
(Waterfall) Cascada de las Mariposas 6.0 6.5 8.5 10.0 31.0 7.8 3.1
Cascadas de las minas 5.0 6.0 8.0 8.5 27.5 6.9 2.8
Cultural manifestations ve1 ve2 ve3 vf1 Summation Average 40%
Zapotepamba Binational
Technical Training Center (Centro
Binacional de Formación Técnica
Zapotepamba)
10.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 35.0 8.8 3.5
National Institute for Agricultural
Research (Instituto Nacional de
investigaciones Agropecuarias)
6.0 5.0 8.0 8.0 27.0 6.8 2.7
Yamana Heritage Houses (Casas
patrimoniales de Yamana)
8.0 1.0 10 10 29.0 7.3 2.9
Yamana Central Church (Iglesia
Central de Yamana)
8.0 1.0 10 5.0 24.0 6.0 2.4
Image sharing 10.0 1.0 10 10 31.0 7.8 3.1
Barrial Blanco Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos del Barrial Blanco)
8.0 1.0 1.0 10 20.0 5.0 2.0
Rinconada Petroglyphs (Petroglifos
de la Rinconada)
4.0 1.0 1.0 10 16.0 4.0 1.6
Polo Petroglyphs (Petroglifos Polo) 8.0 1.0 1.0 10 20.0 5.0 2.0
Fatima Lookout (Mirador de Fátima) 8.0 1.0 10 10 29.0 7.3 2.9
Catacocha Heritage Houses (Casas
Patrimoniales de Catacocha)
10.0 8 10 10 38.0 9.5 3.8
Matriz Catacocha Church (Iglesia
Matriz Catacocha)
8.0 1.0 10 10 29.0 7.3 2.9
27
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Resources Intrinsic attributes
Terrestrial (Hills, ravines, parks, etc.) va1 vb1 vb2 vb3 Summation Average 40 %
Joaquin Leiba brothers museum
(Museo de los hermanos Joaquin
Leiba)
8.0 1.0 10 10 29.0 7.3 2.9
Indio Paltense 4.0 1.0 10 10 25.0 6.3 2.5
Tasines de Playas alto 8.0 1.0 10.0 10.0 29.0 7.3 2.9
Source: author’s own elaboration.
Table 5. Decision matrix with normalized values
Resources Extrinsic attributes
Terrestrial vg1 vg2 vh1 vh2 vh3 vh4 Vi 1 vi2 vi3 vi4 vj1 Summation Average 60 %
(Forest) Bosque
Zapotepamba
7.0 8.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 6.0 85.0 7.7 4.6
(Mount) Cerro
Chamba
7.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 4.0 1.0 5.0 1.0 2.0 7.0 6.5 56.5 5.1 3.1
(Hill) Loma La Capilla 7.5 8.0 6.0 3.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 38.5 3.5 2.1
(Hill) Loma Mayor 8.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 7.0 1.0 51.0 4.6 2.8
(Forest) Bosque
Suquinda
10.0 9.0 8.0 10.0 7.0 1.0 8.0 6.0 3.5 6.5 9.0 78.0 7.1 4.3
(Mount) Cerro
Guanchuro
9.0 9.5 10.0 10.0 8.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 5.0 6.3 70.8 6.4 3.9
(Mount) Cerro Padre
Hurco
8.5 8.6 6.0 7.0 4.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 52.1 4.7 2.8
(Mount) Cerro
Tarimbo
8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 5.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 49.0 4.5 2.7
(Rock) Peña
Shiriculapo
10.0 9.5 10.0 10.0 4.0 10.0 10 10 8.0 6.0 10 97.5 8.9 5.3
(Mount) Cerro Pisaca 10 8.0 10 7.0 4.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 64.0 5.8 3.5
Aquatic (Streams)
(Stream) Chorro el
Almendral
8.0 8.5 8.0 7.0 10 10 8.0 5.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 71.5 6.5 3.9
28
Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Resources Extrinsic attributes
Terrestrial vg1 vg2 vh1 vh2 vh3 vh4 Vi 1 vi2 vi3 vi4 vj1 Summation Average 60 %
(Waterfall) Cascada
de las Mariposas
8.0 8.9 6.0 7.0 10 10.0 8.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 65.9 6.0 3.6
(Waterfall) Cascadas
de las minas
8.3 9.0 6.0 3.0 10 10.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 55.3 5.0 3.0
Cultural manifestations
Zapotepamba
Binational Technical
Training Center
(Centro Binacional de
Formación Técnica
Zapotepamba)
10.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 10.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 105 9.5 5.7
National Institute for
Agricultural Research
(Instituto Nacional
de investigaciones
Agropecuarias)
8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 9.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 2.0 8.0 77 7.0 4.2
Yamana Heritage
Houses (Casas
patrimoniales de
Yamana)
8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 5.0 1.0 5.0 4.0 6.8 70.8 6.4 3.9
Yamana Central
Church (Iglesia
Central de Yamana)
9.0 9.0 8.0 3.0 8.0 10.0 5.0 1.0 2.0 5.0 7.5 67.5 6.1 3.7
Image sharing 8.0 9.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 10.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 55 5.0 3.0
Barrial Blanco
Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos del
Barrial Blanco)
8.0 8.7 8.0 7.0 8.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 58.7 5.3 3.2
Rinconada
Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos de la
Rinconada)
8.5 8.6 6.0 7.0 5.0 10.0 8.0 7.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 68.1 6.2 3.7
Polo Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos Polo)
8.5 9.0 8.0 3.0 10 10 8.0 7.0 2.0 4.0 7.5 77 7.0 4.2
29
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Resources Extrinsic attributes
Terrestrial vg1 vg2 vh1 vh2 vh3 vh4 Vi 1 vi2 vi3 vi4 vj1 Summation Average 60 %
Fatima Lookout
(Mirador de Fátima)
8.0 8.0 8.0 10 1.0 10 5.0 5.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 63 5.7 3.4
Catacocha Heritage
Houses (Casas
Patrimoniales de
Catacocha)
10 9.0 9.0 10 10 9.0 8.0 9.0 8.0 6.0 6.0 96 8.7 5.2
Matriz Catacocha
Church (Iglesia
Matriz Catacocha)
10 8.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 1.0 8.0 9.0 2.0 5.0 8.0 76 6.9 4.1
Joaquin Leiba
brothers museum
(Museo de los
hermanos Joaquin
Leiba)
9.5 9.0 8.0 7.0 5.0 1.0 8.0 9.0 2.0 6.0 8.0 72.5 6.6 4.0
Indio Paltense 8.0 7.9 8.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 45.9 4.2 2.5
Tasines de Playas
alto
8.0 8.5 6.0 3.0 5.0 10 1.0 1.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 50.5 4.6 2.8
Source: author’s own elaboration.
Results
Because there were four different groups of intrinsic criteria such as: terrestrial, aquatic (water
ows), aquatic (lakes) and cultural manifestations; the evaluation involved applying, for each
of the groups, the weighted linear summation. Based on the combination procedure, the nal
evaluation of each of the tourist resources was obtained based on their relevance for the
tourist development of Canton Paltas.
Table 6. Results obtained from the linear combination of attributes (standardized criteria)
Resources Linear
Sum of
Intrinsic
Resources
Linear
Sum of
Extrinsic
Resources
Weighted
Sum of
Intrinsic
Criteria
Weighted
Sum of
Extrinsic
Criteria
Final
Value of
Weights
Preference
order
(Forest) Bosque
Zapotepamba
22.50 85.00 2.3 4.6 6.89 7
30
Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Resources Linear
Sum of
Intrinsic
Resources
Linear
Sum of
Extrinsic
Resources
Weighted
Sum of
Intrinsic
Criteria
Weighted
Sum of
Extrinsic
Criteria
Final
Value of
Weights
Preference
order
(Mount) Cerro Chamba 25.50 56.50 2.6 3.1 5.63 21
(Hill) Loma La Capilla 27.00 38.50 2.7 2.1 4.80 27
(Hill) Loma Mayor 26.20 51.00 2.6 2.8 5.40 22
(Forest) Bosque Suquinda 29.00 78.00 2.9 4.3 7.15 4
(Mount) Cerro Guanchuro 25.00 70.80 2.5 3.9 6.36 12
(Mount) Cerro Padre Hurco 29.00 52.10 2.9 2.8 5.74 19
(Mount) Cerro Tarimbo 23.50 49.00 2.4 2.7 5.02 25
(Rock) Peña Shiriculapo 32.00 97.50 3.2 5.3 8.52 3
(Mount) Cerro Pisaca 29.00 64.00 2.9 3.5 6.39 11
(Stream) Chorro el
Almendral
19.5 71.5 1.95 3.9 5.85 17
(Waterfall) Cascada de las
Mariposas
31 65.9 3.1 3.6 6.69 10
(Waterfall) Cascadas de las
minas
27.5 55.3 2.75 3.0 5.77 18
Zapotepamba Binational
Technical Training Center (Centro
Binacional de Formación Técnica
Zapotepamba)
35 105 3.5 5.7 9.23 1
National Institute for
Agricultural Research
(Instituto Nacional
de investigaciones
Agropecuarias)
27 77 2.7 4.2 6.90 6
Yamana Heritage Houses
(Casas patrimoniales de
Yamana)
29 70.8 2.9 3.9 6.76 9
Yamana Central Church
(Iglesia Central de Yamana)
24 67.5 2.4 3.7 6.08 16
Image sharing 31 55 3.1 3.0 6.10 15
31
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
Resources Linear
Sum of
Intrinsic
Resources
Linear
Sum of
Extrinsic
Resources
Weighted
Sum of
Intrinsic
Criteria
Weighted
Sum of
Extrinsic
Criteria
Final
Value of
Weights
Preference
order
Barrial Blanco Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos del Barrial
Blanco)
20 58.7 2 3.2 5.20 24
Rinconada Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos de la Rinconada)
16 68.1 1.6 3.7 5.31 23
Polo Petroglyphs
(Petroglifos Polo)
20 77 2 4.2 6.20 14
Fatima Lookout (Mirador de
Fátima)
29 63 2.9 3.4 6.34 13
Catacocha Heritage Houses
(Casas Patrimoniales de
Catacocha)
38 96 3.8 5.2 9.04 2
Matriz Catacocha Church
(Iglesia Matriz Catacocha)
29 76 2.9 4.1 7.05 5
Joaquin Leiba brothers
museum (Museo de los
hermanos Joaquin Leiba)
29 72.5 2.9 4.0 6.85 8
Indio Paltense 25 45.9 2.5 2.5 5.00 26
Tasines de Playas alto 29 50.5 2.9 2.8 5.65 20
Source: author’s own elaboration.
Once the assessment was made, it was identied that in terms of cultural interest, the resource
that has the greatest tourist potential is the Binational Technical Training Center Zapotepamba,
belonging to the Universidad Nacional de Loja, it has all the necessary accesses, adequate
infrastructure and basic services and it has agricultural programs, because they are on the
main road that connects the cantonal head with the other cantons. As it could be seen in
the table, the extrinsic criteria have a higher score, which shows that it has great potential
for developing tourism. Likewise, due to its location, this tourist resource is in full view of all
the tourists who visit Canton Paltas. However, there are other resources that can be used for
tourism purposes, this is the case of the Heritage Houses of Catacocha (Casas Patrimoniales
de Catacocha), a place that is located in the cantonal head, it has the necessary infrastructure
to promote tourism in the area, basic services, among others, is important to give good use
that benets the community; on the other hand, in third row is the (Rock) Peña Shiriculapo, is
32
Multi-criteria evaluation of the resources and tourist attractions of the area adjacent to the Zapotepamba Binational Technical Training Center
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
a well-known attraction but it is not enough to have a good promotion, but it also has all the
facilities for tourists to access it.
Likewise, with the evaluation it was possible to determine that, the tourist resource that obtained
a low score is (Rock) Peña de los Espíritus, since it did not meet all the proposed criteria, since
it does not depend only on its potential, but also on its state of conservation, community
participation and promotion.
A general analysis of the results obtained makes it possible to establish that the extrinsic
criteria exert the most determining inuence on the evaluation. Likewise, what causes an
attraction to have a low score is also due to the lack of equipment, infrastructure and security,
it is a fundamental part of any attraction to have these requirements, since tourists visit places
that make them feel safe and preserve their landscaping beauty. It should be noted that the
ranking made it possible to appreciate that many tourist resources and attractions of the
aforementioned parishes are sites that, with good administration, can carry out undertakings
and therefore help in a process of tourist development, taking advantage of them in the best
way, without causing any impact.
Discussion
The Yamana, Casanga and Catacocha parishes have natural and cultural tourist attractions, to
carry out different activities according to their preference, it is worth mentioning that there are
27 inventoried attractions, most of them correspond to cultural manifestations, this group is
important as people are interested for knowing the culture of a town, its customs, traditions and
ways of living together; all this makes it unmatched in value, making the place more attractive.
The inventory reects the variety of tourist attractions and with this, tourism activity can be
further promoted, always towards a sustainable vision. On the other hand, inventoried natural
resources are undoubtedly important elements which have characteristics that anyone would
be interested in visiting. Despite the lack of maintenance of the same and the disinterest on
the part of the authorities, people do not have the spirit to know these places and choose to
look for other destinations.
The appropriate selection of an inventory of tourist resources and a multi-criteria evaluation
become a guide that allows us to identify the current tourist offer and the actions that are
still to be carried out in the destination; it will allow designing strategies or proposals for the
development of tourist products, generating a minimum impact.
The evaluation carried out has made possible to clearly differentiate the resources with the
greatest attributes for recreational use based on their own characteristics. However, it is
important to mention that the evaluation carried out has as a limitation the lack of consideration
33
Hilda Paola Zhingre Pogo, Maruxi Loarte Tene, Rubén Darío Román Aguirre, Jhohana Larrea Silva, Jefferson Sánchez Ruiz
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 14-34
of the social actors linked to the resources, since they are an important part of establishing
future projects or ventures.
Conclusions
Therefore, it is considered that the evaluation of tourist resources and attractions are a necessary
tool to guide decision-making in the tourist planning and development processes carried out for
any destination. The contribution of this article lies in the application of multi-criteria evaluation
as a very useful method to obtain a hierarchy of resources according to the proposed criteria.
For this reason, obtaining an adequate inventory allowed dening the attributes and analysis
criteria used in the MCE, resulting in an appropriate strategy to qualify them quantitatively.
Likewise, it allowed obtaining favorable results, which will later serve as a basis for establishing
or proposing future tourism products, increasing the supply and therefore the demand.
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