Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-13
DOI: 10.31876/er.v4i34.747
1
Psychological well-being and academic performance
of students in the career of nursing undergraduate
Bienestar psicológico y rendimiento académico de estudiantes de pregrado
de la carrera de enfermería
Andrés Alexis Ramírez-Coronel
*
, Pedro Carlos Martínez-Suárez
**
, Rosa Elvira Minchala-Urgilés
***
Martin Adrián Contreras-Sanango
****
Recibido: 13 de marzo de 2020.
Aprobado: 29 de julio de 2020.
Cite this:
Ramírez-Coronel, A. et al. (2020). Psychological
well-being and academic performance of students
in the career of nursing undergraduate. Espirales.
Revista Multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca,
4(34), 1-13.
Abstract
This research study aims to analyze the relationship
between psychological well-being and academic
performance. A non-experimental design of a descriptive
and correlational type was used. The sample of
participants was 300 university students (61 men and
239 women) in the undergraduate program of nursing
at the Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Azogues, with
an average age of 22 years. The Psychological Welfare
Scale, a Likert type test, was applied, consisting of 65
items. It was administered individually and the following
stages were assessed: Subjective Psychological Welfare,
Material Welfare, and Work Welfare. The results indicated
that the greater their psychological well-being the better
their academic performance.
Key words: Academic performance, psychological
well-being, university students.
*
PhD in Neuropsychology. Universidad Católica de
Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador.
E-mail: andres.ramirez@ucacue.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0002-6996-0443.
Google Scholar
**
PhD in Psychology. Universidad Católica de
Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador.
E-mail: pmartinezs@ucacue.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0002-1441-3821.
Google Scholar
***
Master in Health Research and Specialist in Health
Management and Strategic Planning. Universidad
Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador.
E-mail: rosa.minchala@ucacue.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0002-0934-9116.
Google Scholar
****
Degree in Nursing. Universidad Católica de Cuenca,
Cuenca, Ecuador.
E-mail: jvcontrerass99@est.ucacue.edu.ec.
ORCID: 0000-0001-6226-4739.
Google Scholar
2
Psychological well-being and academic performance of students in the career of nursing undergraduate
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-13
Resumen
En este estudio investigativo se pretende analizar la relación entre
bienestar psicológico y rendimiento académico. Se utilizó un diseño
no experimental de tipo descriptivo y correlacional. La muestra de
participantes fue de 300 estudiantes (61 hombres y 239 mujeres)
universitarios del pregrado de la carrera de enfermería de la Universidad
Católica de Cuenca sede Azogues, con una media de edad de 22
años. Se aplicó la escala de bienestar psicológico, prueba tipo Likert,
constituida por 65 ítems. Su administración fue de manera individual
y se valoró los siguientes estadios: bienestar psicológico subjetivo,
bienestar material, bienestar laboral. Los resultados indicaron que a
mayor bienestar psicológico mejor será su rendimiento académico.
Palabras clave: rendimiento académico, bienestar psicológico,
estudiantes universitarios.
Introduction
Academic performance (AP), according to Novaez (1986), is the set of grades obtained by
the person in activities of an academic nature. For Ryff and Keyes (1995) the AP is the result
achieved from the educational process, which has previously been set out with its learning
objectives and purposes. For this reason, “The AP is a set of skills linked to affective factors
(Velásquez et al., 2008, p. 143). The competencies proposed are those that reect positive
responses to the educational objectives set (Ryff, 1989). Therefore, the competencies acquired
are those that will reect the level of goals achieved by students according to the objectives
set out in the curriculum.
On the other hand, Navarro (2003) mentions that the AP is the ability to measure the learning
acquired in the educational process or program, in short, the AP is the result of academic
or educational stimuli (Cooke et al., 2006). AP is the capacity of the student to acquire the
objectives established in the teaching and learning process, which makes it possible to verify
the level obtained by the individual (Rodríguez, Fita & Torrado, 2004).
High levels of motivation for learning are necessary to achieve excellent academic performance
(Bray & Born, 2004). The relationship that students in educational establishments have with
the perception of psychological well-being is related to the study of the purposes that they
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Andrés Alexis Ramírez-Coronel, Pedro Carlos Martínez-Suárez, Rosa Elvira Minchala-Urgilés, Martin Adrián Contreras-Sanango
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
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project towards signicant learning and, in turn, they consider the fulllment of academic
goals (Correa, Cuevas & Villaseñor, 2017).
AP can be affected by numerous variables. In the study carried out by Aliaga (2001) at the
Universidad Nacional de San Marcos in the city of Lima-Peru, he arms the relationship
between motivation and learning strategies. Later, Robles and Páez (2003) armed in his
investigation that the AP and the personality traits do not exist a signicant relation. According
to the study by Velásquez et al. (2008), they stated that in both women and men, there is a
positive correlation between psychological well-being and assertiveness.
On the other hand, psychological well-being in most cases is characterized by life satisfaction or
state of happiness, it is also identied as quality of life, which contains behavioural competencies,
external environment contexts, beliefs and options about the satisfactions received (Castro
& Casullo, 2001).
In the traditional studies of the psychological well-being two links have been called: one
linked to happiness as a predictor of life satisfaction and one linked to potential development
(Velásquez et al., 2008).
The Psychological well-being is illustrated as the level at which an individual judges his life as
a whole in favorable terms (Morales & González, 2014). According to Diener (1994) he arms
the association of GS with positive mood, high self-esteem and low depressive symptoms. On
the other hand, Castro (2010) establishes that psychological well-being contains three basic
components: cognitive component, negative component and positive component. In order
to produce the psychological well-being, it is necessary to link: cognitive judgment (directed
to the goals set) and behavior (about objectives and purposes).
The individual with high levels of psychological well-being is capable of achieving the proposed
goals, which will provoke happiness and satisfaction (Barrón et al., 2002; Bermúdez, Álvarez
& Sánchez, 2003; Vivaldi & Barra, 2012; Correa, Cuevas & Villaseñor, 2017). The element that
determines the RA is the BP (Morales & González, 2014).
Álvarez (2007) mentions that in university students there is a level of complexity in both the
adaptation process and the procedure for staying in the academic program; and the factors
that predominate in the academic environment are the following: psychological well-being,
family dynamics, emotional intelligence, self-concept and self-esteem.
Previous research indicates that university students between the ages of 18 and 29 show a high
level of self-acceptance (García, 2013). While university students between the ages of 30 and
55 show a high degree of self-acceptance, personal growth and mastery of their surroundings.
4
Psychological well-being and academic performance of students in the career of nursing undergraduate
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-13
There are also several studies that investigate the correlation between psychological well-being
and other factors that determine the life of a university student such as anxiety (Moreno &
Moreno, 2016), stress (Matalinares et al., 2016), religious orientation (García & Bernabé, 2013),
social support (Rodríguez, 2014) and the couple’s relationship (Arias, Navarrete & Flor, 2013).
In the approach of the problem around the correlation of the academic performance and the
psychological well-being, knowing that the AP is the result of the qualications obtained in
the process of teaching and learning and the psychological well-being is the state satisfaction
or happiness, in this investigation it will be determined if a signicant relation exists between
the variables mentioned in the in undergraduate students of the career of inrmary of the
Universidad Católica de Cuenca.
The general objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between psychological
well-being and academic performance in undergraduate nursing students at the Universidad
Católica de Cuenca, Azogues. And, the hypothesis that is raised in this study is to establish if the
undergraduate students of inrmary to greater psychological well-being greater academic yield.
Materials and Methods
A non-experimental, descriptive, correlational, quantitatively oriented study was conducted
to analyze the relationship between academic performance and psychological well-being.
The population is 490 undergraduate students of the nursing career and we worked with a
sample of 300 students (61 men and 239 women), to determine the sample we applied the
formula of nite populations, then we carried out a non-probabilistic sampling. The criteria
for inclusion are the following: students from the Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Azogues
campus, undergraduate students in the career of Nursing, and students who have agreed
to complete the survey. And as Exclusion Criteria are the following: students from other
Universities, students who do not belong to the Nursing career, people who do not wish to
participate in the research.
The instrument used was the following: The Psychological Welfare Scale (Sánchez-Cánovas,
2013), Likert type, constituted by 65 items, its administration or application is individual and
its answers from 1 = “totally disagree” to 6 Totally agree, the following stages: Subjective
Psychological Welfare, Material Welfare, Work Welfare and Relationship with the Couple. These
subscales can be applied separately (except for the rst two, which will always be applied
together) or together. In this way, the PBS allows to obtain in a quick and brief way a specic
evaluation of the level of general happiness of the person and the level of satisfaction with
their economic income and material goods, with their work and with their relationship with
their partner, all of which are intimately related to the general psychological well-being of a
person. And, for academic performance, the nal grade of each student was requested.
5
Andrés Alexis Ramírez-Coronel, Pedro Carlos Martínez-Suárez, Rosa Elvira Minchala-Urgilés, Martin Adrián Contreras-Sanango
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-13
The following procedure was carried out: in the rst instance, a meeting was held with the
director of the nursing degree at the Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Azogues campus, in order
to request permission to carry out this investigation. Then, the nal grade (overall grade) of the
educational process of all the students who are studying the undergraduate degree in nursing
was requested, and with this, the AP of the student body was obtained. The Psychological
Well-Being Scale was then administered individually in a quiet environment. It was run in an
individualized session with a duration of 30 minutes per participant. Finally, the informed
consent was signed and presented with the guarantee of anonymity and condentiality.
A descriptive analysis of frequencies and percentages was established and the Kolmogorov-
Smirnov test was applied to demonstrate the distribution. Subsequently, the correlation analysis
between the variables with the Spearman’s Rho correlation was performed, since this test
is adequately vigorous in the face of apparent non-parametric compliance. For the analysis
of the data we used the SPSS version 26 statistic with original license (N/S:59326190518).
Results
Of the 300 students who conducted the survey, 61 students were men, worth 20 per cent,
while the number of women who conducted the survey was 239, belonging to 80 per cent
of the total students. The female sex predominated with a percentage of 79.7 per cent, while
the male sex had a percentage of 20.3 per cent. In terms of age, the average was 22 years
old, with a median and fashion of 21 years old. In terms of marital status, it showed that 67 %
of the students surveyed were single; 17.7 % of students were married; 6.7 % were divorced
and 8.7 % lived in a union. The highest percentage of psychological well-being is 49 per cent
(149) of students have average psychological well-being; while 39.7 per cent (119) have high
psychological well-being and 10.7 per cent (32) of students have low psychological well-
being. Most of the academic performance is 61 % (183) have an outstanding average; 32 %
(96) have a very good average; 1.3 % (4) have a good average and 5.7 % (17) have a regular
average (Table 1).
Of most students, 90 % have outstanding academic performance and average psychological
well-being; 74 % have outstanding academic performance and high psychological well-being;
53 % have very good academic performance and average psychological well-being; 35 %
of students have very good academic performance and high psychological well-being; 19
% have outstanding academic performance and low psychological well-being; 9 % have fair
academic performance and high psychological well-being; 8 % have very good academic
performance and low psychological well-being; 5 % have fair academic performance and
average psychological well-being; 3 % have fair academic performance and low psychological
well-being; 2 % have good academic performance and low psychological well-being; 1 % have
good academic performance and average psychological well-being and 1 % have very good
academic performance and high psychological well-being.
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Psychological well-being and academic performance of students in the career of nursing undergraduate
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-13
Table 1. Psychological well-being and AP
f %
Psychological
well-being
Under 32 10.7
Average 149 49.7
High 119 39.7
Academic performance
Regular 17 5.7
Well 4 1.3
Very Good 96 32
Outstanding 183 61
Total 300 100
Source: author’s own elaboration.
Table 2 of Spearmans Rho correlation shows that there is a statistically signicant relationship
between psychological well-being and academic performance, given that the p-value is .018;
therefore, the alternative hypothesis is conrmed, that is, the greater the psychological well-
being the better the academic performance (Figure 1).
Table 2. Correlations between psychological well-being, material well-being, work and academic performance
Academic Performance
Psychologist
Spearmans Rho .837
*
p-value .018
Material
Spearmans Rho .183
p-value .107
Labour
Spearmans Rho .233
p-value .293
p-value <0.05
Source: author’s own elaboration.
7
Andrés Alexis Ramírez-Coronel, Pedro Carlos Martínez-Suárez, Rosa Elvira Minchala-Urgilés, Martin Adrián Contreras-Sanango
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
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Discussion and Conclusion
There are studies that show similar results as the one carried out by Carranza, Hernández
and Alhuay (2017) in the city of Tarapoto in Peru, with psychology students, aged between 16
and 30 years, where the results showed a statistically signicant relationship (p<.01). Another
study is related to the previous ones by Velázquez et al. (2008) in Lima-Peru, with university
students from the faculties of medicine, law and administration; the results showed that there
is a statistically signicant relationship in gender (male p=0.031 and female p=0.01); as for
the faculties, in medicine the correlation between psychological well-being and academic
performance shows a statistically signicant relationship (p=0.03); the correlation between
psychological well-being and AP of the law faculty shows signicant relationship (p=0.034);
the correlation between psychological well-being and AP of management faculty students
similarly shows statistically signicant relationship (p=0.13); the correlation of youth and
adults showed signicant relationship (p=0.01 and p=0.05). This means that the good self-
acceptance of the student affects the development within the university, this type of students
demonstrates to have better relations with society, they persist and struggle to achieve their
goals, they are able to solve problems without diculties.
Figure 1. Dispersion between Academic Performance and Psychological Well-being. Source: author’s own
elaboration.
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Psychological well-being and academic performance of students in the career of nursing undergraduate
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, vol 4, No. 34
Julio-septiembre 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. págs 1-13
Similarly, a study conducted in Medellin, Colombia, by García (2014) proposes that psychological
well-being and AP were evaluated and a statistically signicant relationship was established
given that the p-value was 0.03 with incidence in adults in the eld of Engineering.
Another study is related to the previous ones, this one was conducted by Ferragut and Fierro
(2012), a statistically signicant relationship was established between emotional intelligence
and AP with a p value of 0.04 in school students. On the other hand, Chávez (2006) in Mexico
City, at the Universidad Iberoamericana de Psicología conducted a study of men and women
where the results showed that there is no statistically signicant relationship with a p value
of 0.08 in men, but in women the correlation showed a signicant relationship (p<0.05). If a
student is emotionally well, he or she will set goals and know what he or she wants for his or
her future, so he or she will strive to have goals met.
With the results of this study, the hypothesis was conrmed. Based on this, the university
authorities will believe it is pertinent to make decisions to be able to intervene in different
ways in the resolution of psychological problems in order to rescue, maintain or potentialize
capacities that inuence the correct academic development of the students.
Future research could be directed towards the study of personal well-being and its relationship
with emotional intelligence and social skills (Ramírez-Coronel et al., 2020); AP in relation
to neuropsychological functions (Ramírez-Coronel, 2018, 2019), with anthropometric
measurements (Ramírez-Coronel et al., 2020; Romero-Sacoto & Ramírez-Coronel, 2019;
Romero-Sacoto et al., 2020). It would be interesting to ask, as other authors have done, whether
an indirect relationship can be established between IQ and performance, mediated by the
effects on psychological balance (Extremera & Fernández-Berrocal, 2003).
The study presents the limitation of having applied Perceived Emotional Intelligence tests,
in this sense it would be interesting to be able to compare these results with measures of
evaluation of the execution of this construct in addition to self-perception. This study carried
out with university students of the nursing career showed results of a signicant moderate
relationship between psychological well-being and AP.
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