55
Information and Communication Technologies
based on formative research
Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación
en función de la investigación formativa
Amarilis Rita Pérez Licea*, Irene Trelles Rodríguez**, Caridad Aurora Lora Quesada***,
Jorge Luis Olmo Pérez****, Luisa Noa Silveiro*****
*
Second Degree Specialist in Human Anatomy.
Coordinator of Basic Sciences Area, Universidad
Católica Santiago de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
E-mail: amapeli55@gmail.com
ORCID: 0000-0001-7841-6573
Google Scholar
**
PhD in Communication Sciences. Director of
the Doctorate Department, Universidad Católica
Santiago de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
E-mail: irene.trelles@gmail.com
ORCID: 0000-0001-5370-7155
Google Scholar
***
Master in Medical Education, Master in
Community Health. Auxiliary Professor,
Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Holguín,
Holguín, Cuba.
E-mail: calor@infomed.sld.cu
ORCID: 0000-0002-1010-8993
Google Scholar
****
Industrial Engineer, Electronics and Systems
Technologist. Instituto Tecnológico OLVITECH,
Guayaquil, Ecuador.
E-mail: olmojwpersonal@gmail.com
ORCID: 0000-0002-3184-0585
Google Scholar
*****
PhD in Communication Sciences. Full Professor,
Universidad de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.
E-mail: luisanoa38@gmail.com
ORCID: 0000-0003-2504-3325
Google Scholar
Received: February 16, 2019.
Accepted: December 17, 2019.
Cite this:
Pérez, A. et al. (2020). Information and
Communication Technologies based on formative
research. Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de
investigación cientíca, 4(33), 55-68.
Abstract
Information and communication technologies based
on formative research are of great importance for
achieve competent professionals in the labor and
research sphere and in the adequate preparation
of teachers with the consequent accompaniment
to students with effective tutorial processes during
their academic training en Nursing. An observational,
descriptive study was carried out between August
2018 and August 2019, in which a population of 704
students was worked; a semi-structured questionnaire
was prepared and a group interview was applied to
32 Nursing professors at the Universidad Católica de
Santiago de Guayaquil, who taught their subjects in
the different Units of Basic Curricular Organization
(Basic, Pre-professional and Degree). It was found
that the motivation for the realization of scientic
works by the professors still found in the initial state
(67.24 %); the 26.55 % of the students respond that
there is a lack of systematic planning of actions and
strategies in terms of linking research in the context
of pre-professional practice and acquired skills,
and construction of the research projects; and only
22 % manifest it is useful to be able to select and
prepare their information, which demonstrates that
the existing methodology in the program has yet to
be adjusted for such effects.
Key words: formative research, students, teachers,
nursing, curriculum organization unit, degree.
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol 4 , No. 33,
April-June 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. Pags 55-68
DOI: 10.31876/er.v4i33.730
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol 4 , No. 33,
April-June 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. Pags 55-68
Information and Communication Technologies based on formative research
56
Resumen
Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en función
de la investigación formativa son de gran importancia para lograr
profesionales competentes en la esfera laboral e investigativa y
en la adecuada preparación de los docentes con el consecuente
acompañamiento a los estudiantes con procesos tutoriales efectivos
durante su formación académica en enfermería. Se realizó un estudio
observacional, descriptivo, entre agosto de 2018 y agosto de 2019,
donde se trabajó con una población de 704 estudiantes; se elaboró
un cuestionario semiestructurado y se aplicó una entrevista grupal a
32 docentes de enfermería de la Universidad Católica de Santiago
de Guayaquil, quienes impartían sus asignaturas en las diferentes
Unidades de Organización Curricular (básica, preprofesional y de
titulación). Se encontró que la motivación para la realización de
trabajos cientícos por parte de los profesores aún se encuentra
en estado inicial (67,24 %); el 26,55 % de los estudiantes responde
que existe falta de sistematicidad en la planicación de acciones y
estrategias en función de vincular la investigación en los contextos
de la práctica preprofesional y habilidades adquiridas y construcción
de proyectos de investigación; y solo un 22 % maniesta que es útil
poder seleccionar y preparar su información, lo que demuestra que
todavía hay que ajustar más la metodología existente en la carrera
para tales efectos.
Palabras clave: investigación formativa, estudiantes, docentes,
enfermería, unidad de organización curricular, titulación.
Introduction
Research training by students and graduates of any university program is very important.
There are numerous studies carried out in the last decade on this subject in different
universities, which shows the concern of the university community for the professionals it
trains, different are the Latin American universities that have developed different studies
related to the subject that demonstrate the importance that research scientic training is
being provided from undergraduate.
Research in the health sector, and especially in Nursing, plays its original role as a generator
of knowledge, it has a dual academic role; on the one hand, it promotes the training of
scientists and, on the other, it prepares professionals with solid scientic bases. The balanced
assessment of these activities is an essential step to obtain a modern projection of human
resources training in health.
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Scientic research is considered the highest expression of the skill that the student must
master in the framework of university educational processes (Álvarez de Zayas, 2006), the
contemporary university is responsible for the generation and transfer of knowledge.
The student’s training activity presents particular characteristics where the scientic research
methodology allows the acquisition of knowledge, training and development of skills, research
habits, attitudes and values that lead to nding the solution to problems with independence
and creativity, through the use of the scientic method (Barbón & Bascó, 2016).
Nursing knowledge related to the care of the basic needs of the individual throughout life in a
health and/or disease situation implies how to dispose of the phenomena that we encounter
through research (Callizo & Carrasco, 2015).
Currently, universities are not aware of the changes in science and technology worldwide
that lead to the systemic consolidation of the development and improvement of student
scientic activity, in accordance with the scientic policies of each region, nowadays, it is
necessary to increase scientic research at undergraduate level, to encourage an increasing
number of students to motivate themselves towards research, which leads to increasing the
quantity and quality of research, with transformative effects on the quality of the population
and health services. However, despite its importance, recent analysis results support the
existence of recognized limitations to effectively carry out this activity (Callizo & Carrasco,
2015; Fernández et al., 2008; Ruiz, González & Morán, 2015).
It is stated that the ultimate goal of any profession is to improve the practice of its members
so that the services provided have the greatest eciency, which seeks to increase their
image and as such is dedicated to the constant acquisition of scientic knowledge that
is fundamental to their practice, and today this is becoming more relevant due to the
increasing cost of services, consumers are beginning to demand that professionals examine
the effectiveness of their practice and specify the effect that their knowledge and skills have
on society (Fernández et al., 2008).
Nursing considers that the solution of health problems is not only and exclusively the task of
a discipline, but rather joint participation, through permanent scientic work whose result is
the contribution of knowledge and appropriate technologies (Ruiz, González & Morán, 2015).
The quality of nursing care cannot improve until scientic responsibility becomes as
integral to tradition as humanism is. Investigative responsibility is essential for the practicing
professional in their various roles, both in managing patients and in managing resources and
logistics in the health care system.
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The application of the scientic method in the nursing care practice is the Nursing
Care Process (Proceso de Atención de Enfermería –PAE– for its acronym in Spanish).
This method allows nurses to provide care in a rational, logical and systematic way
(Chalen, 2018), it constitutes the basic work tool for professional practice that allows not
only to identify problems derived from the effect of the health-disease process, but also
to plan, execute and evaluate the Nursing care provision, as a result of scientic research,
provides the nurse with technical capacity (handling of instruments and clinical surgical
equipment), intellectual capacity (issuing effective and scientically based care plans and
relationship skills), knowing how to look, empathy and obtaining the greatest number of
data to assess. Therefore, it is important to emphasize that the quality of nursing care
cannot improve until scientic responsibility becomes part of their daily actions.
In Latin America, with a particular effect in Ecuador, this situation is still not systematically
maintained, which leads to a limiting factor, not only student research and the interest
of future professionals (Chalen, 2018), but also the teaching performance in this area of
pedagogical activity, on which the research results of the students and their motivation
depend to a great extent.
Scientic research as a starting point takes the progressively growing information or
knowledge accumulated by the research of previous scientists carries in it an exhaustive
review of what will be investigated (Chalen, 2018).
In accordance with the legal framework, and to the Regulations of the Academic Regime,
it has undergone modications and total emphasis is placed on its Art. 39 where it is
stated that formative research is a fundamental component of the academic training
process and is developed in the student-teacher interaction, throughout the curriculum
of a program; as a transversal axis of the transmission and production of knowledge in
learning contexts; enabling the development of investigative skills by students, as well as
the innovation of pedagogical practice of teachers. It is a process of use and generation of
knowledge characterized by the application of conventional research methods, innovation,
analysis and validation among peers; generally producing knowledge of relevance and
local, national, and/or international validity, oriented to know-how professional; and
incorporating technical-technological components in its products.
Therefore, Higher Education Institutions –HEIs– must plan, accompany and evaluate actions
that ensure student training in and for research; research as a general learning strategy;
and, action research of the curriculum, in its different components, by the academic staff as
stated in the Academic Regime Regulations. The HEIs will determine the object, scope, rigor,
impact, methodologies and conditions of development of the formative research in their
programs and/or programs.
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April-June 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. Pags 55-68
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Thus, it is summarized in its Art. 40: Formative research at the third level. Formative
research at the third level tends to the development of research knowledge and skills
aimed at scientific, technological, social, humanistic and artistic innovation. Regarding
technical-technological and undergraduate training, it will be developed through the
mastery of exploratory investigative techniques in relation to the creation, adaptation
and technological innovation, while artistic programs should incorporate research on
technologies, models and artistic production activities. In relation to other professional
fields, research for learning will be carried out in the training field of epistemology and
the research methodology of a profession, through the development of exploratory and/
or descriptive research activities or projects.
To consider that research methods are only relevant in the development of scientic research
is wrong. On the contrary, as discussed below, research methods are also important for
effective clinical practice in the context of modern nursing care.
In the last 50 years, scientic research in nursing has taken on an increasingly important
role to support practice based on the use of models and theories of nursing in hospital
and community professional practice; the PAE as a regulatory tool for practice, innovation
and technology in professional practice, research for independent professional practice,
reassessment of the professionals educator role and the use of educational activities aimed
at so-called specic risk groups (diabetics, AIDS, hypertension, pregnancies, STIs, among
others) where education, management and its conceptual framework as the foundation for
professional development in the third millennium go hand in hand with scientic research;
and it is for them that student scientic activity becomes increasingly essential from
pre-professional training.
In the Nursing Program of the School of Medical Sciences of Universidad Católica de Santiago
de Guayaquil, the Scientic Student Sessions are held every year, aimed at improving the
formative research of students, with the guidance of their teachers and in the same way they
are integrated graduates and present in this space the results of work carried out that reects
their daily work as necessary elements for the proper development of their professional
activity and improvement of the quality of the current Ecuadorian university.
Within the Nursing program there are the subjects that are specically taxed to the area of
investigative training and all in general during the professional training process should be
oriented to the knowledge of the processes of exploration, inquiry, organization, explanation,
structuring, involvement and systematization of objects, study systems and professional
performance.
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Then, the educational objective for such purposes of each teacher will be to articulate the
disciplinary contents and those of the profession based on logics, languages and research
methods oriented to the understanding and argumentation of the objects and the context
of the application of the profession, supported by information and communication
technologies to move towards the construction of the transformation agenda for
Ecuadorian higher education.
For this reason, it is important to describe the current state of development and promotion
of student scientic activity in order to assess the existing limitations in such a sense that
they lead to achieving the transformations to which higher medical education aspires.
In accordance with the above, the present study aims to describe the main results of the
formative research and the current state of development and promotion of student scientic
activity in the Nursing program at Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil.
According to the aforementioned, we would then like to describe the main diagnostic results
of the development of student scientic activity in the Nursing program at the Universidad
Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil.
Materials and Methods
Between August 2018 and August 2019, an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional
study was carried out, in which it was worked with a population of 704 students of
the Nursing program, who had completed internships or professional practices in the
training area.
To collect, a semi-structured questionnaire was designed for teachers, research teachers,
executive teachers, and researchers, and a group interview was applied to 32 professors
of the Nursing program, who taught their subjects in the Basic Curricular Organization
Units (cycles or semesters I, II, III, IV), Pre-professional (cycles or semesters V, VI, VII)
and Degree (cycles or semesters VIII, IX) according to a new provision of the curricular
redesign curriculum.
As can be seen in Table 1, it was distributed according to the Curricular Organization Unit
as follows:
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Table 1. Distribution of the surveyed students according to Curricular Organization Unit
Curricular Organization Unit N (%)
Basic (I, II, III, IV) 342 (48)
Pre-professional (V, VI, VII) 292 (42)
Degree (VIII, IX) 70 (10)
Total 704 (100)
Source: author’s own elaboration.
The semi-structured survey to collect data from the students was applied anonymously
with 5 items and allowed obtaining information on the study variables such as: motivation
and preparation of the subjects received to carry out scientic student work, criteria about
planning of actions and strategies in order to link research in the contexts of pre-professional
practice and skills acquired for autonomous and collaborative work, important criteria to
consider within formative research in Nursing.
The interview guide explored three variables in an important way, these are: training received
for the socialization and development of research in general and in particular student
scientic activity, the execution and follow-up with an integrative nature of autonomous work
with a view to carrying out work non-evaluative student scientists and the availability to carry
out actions to achieve the participation of a greater number of students in the Student Days.
The instruments, both the student questionnaire and the group interview guide for teachers
were validated through the expert method, which allowed their adjustment and improvement,
based on their evaluation.
The data were tabulated and processed with the statistical package SPSS for Windows XP,
descriptive statistics, frequency analysis and percentage calculation were used.
Results
As can be seen in Table 2, when exploring the current status of the survey applied if the
students had received motivation from the professors of the program to carry out scientic
work, responses were obtained from a majority (67.24 %) from those still in their initial
state. Only 26.55 % of the students answered that they were progressively receiving specic
instruction from their teachers, with statistical signicance (p <0.05).
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Table 2. Current state of motivation of the surveyed students according to the participation and performance
of scientic work
Advanced: A Optimum: O Progressive: P Initial: I
Quantity % Quantity % Quantity % Quantity %
25 3.59 18 2.62 187 26.55 474 67.24
Source: author’s own elaboration.
As reected in Table 3, when addressing the preparation received by the subjects taught for
the performance of scientic student work through their undergraduate training, encouraging
responses were obtained with a predominance of 49.28 % in the students; in contrast, to the
opinions of the students who in their answers say it is still low (23.87 %).
Table 3. Preparation received by the subjects taught to carry out student scientic work
Average High Low
Quantity % Quantity % Quantity %
347 49.28 189 26.85 168 23.87
Source: author’s own elaboration.
The logic of the conception of the subjects is assumed from the consideration of the
dialectical relationship between the methodological procedures for the development of
scientic research and the content of the profession necessary for its development. From
here it is taken into account: Research Methodology, Epidemiology, Biostatistics among
others; in addition, to indispensable subjects in the degree unit and the last semester that
the students are taking which promote and facilitate tools for investigative work; although it
does not yet exist a total unfolding in these.
Regarding the criteria the planning of actions and strategies in order to link the research in
the contexts of pre-professional practice and acquired skills, students still show diculties
when it comes to addressing their degree work, in construction of the research projects; and
only 22 % manifest it is useful when it comes to selecting and preparing their information,
which shows that the existing methodology in the program still needs to be adjusted more
for such effects, with statistical signicance (p <0.05) (Table 4).
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63
Table 4. Criteria for planning actions and strategies to link research in the contexts of pre-professional
practice and acquired skills
Inadequate: I Low: B Medium: M High: A
Quantity % Quantity % Quantity % Quantity %
339 49 122 17 171 22 72 12
Source: author’s own elaboration.
When analyzing the information obtained from the group interview, it is possible to observe
the following aspects: regarding the training received to develop research in general and
in particular the scientic student activity, a total of 32 teachers them state that they have
received such training (Table 5).
Table 5. Criteria of the different teachers of the Curricular Organization Unit according to the cycles or
semesters
Teachers according
to Curricular
Organization Unit
Training received to
develop research
in general and in
particular student
scientic activity.
N (%)
Follow-up with
integrative character
to the autonomous
work with a view to the
realization of student
scientic works.
N (%)
Availability of actions to
achieve the participation of a
greater number of students in
the Student Conferences.
N (%)
Basic (I, II, III, IV) 16 (50) 25 (75) 20 (70)
Pre-professional
(V,VI,VII)
Degree (VIII, IX)
16 (50) 7 ( 25) 12 (30)
Total 32 (100) 32 (100) 32 (100)
Source: author’s own elaboration.
The follow-up with an integrative nature to the autonomous work with a view to the realization
of student scientic work becomes insucient in the Pre-professional and Degree. However,
when analyzing comprehensively, only 75 % of teachers in the area of basic sciences are
involved in actions to direct autonomous work in actions that follow student scientic work
and we observe that there are still teachers who do not join these practices, despite the fact
that they are in favor of the availability of actions to achieve the participation of a greater
number of students in the Student Days is not fully integrated into these activities.
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In general, we can summarize that the variables described in this study behave insuciently,
particularly for teachers of the Basic Curriculum Organization Unit where students begin to
perceive the usefulness of the preparation they have received for link the knowledge and
skills acquired with research throughout your program formation.
Discussion
To assess the results obtained, we took as starting point indicators that gave us the general
idea about the participation of students, teachers or tutors.
The lack of consistency in the approach of the stages related to the process of formation of
investigative skills as a practice with the student is notorious, very important in the state of
student motivation, but where overload of hours of classes also plays an important role in
teachers and students; in this regard Fernández et al. (2008) state that the role of the teacher
is vital in the process of scientic research with accurate guidance that ranges from the
formation of non-improvised scientic student groups with their previously motivated topic,
the advice until the presentation of the results and the nal report of their work. The authors
of this work consider that, according to the results obtained, they agree with those mentioned
and may also be affected by not following the methodology aimed at their presentation due
to lack of teaching work in the research sphere.
The authors of the topic in question coincide with the criteria regarding the importance
of teacher intervention for the actions of students in search of improvement in learning
based on theoretical references, which allow to base pre-professional practice correctly
through analysis judgments with the consequent selection of possible guidelines to
advance and produce a change before, during and after undergraduate training (Pérez,
Trelles & González, 2018).
It is important to point out that poor preparation in research methodology limits students to
take on the research process, as stated by Araujo et al. (2013) in research carried out with
psychology students, in which a limited command of theoretical-methodological knowledge
to adequately carry out the research work as well as a lack of motivation towards research,
a situation also applicable to this study, so the methodology to stimulate student scientic
activity in our context must maintain implicit workshops that contribute to the development
of investigative skills to increase participation in these activities.
The authors of this work agree that student scientic activity should be addressed as an
important starting point for increasing scientic knowledge in the application of what has
Espirales. Revista multidisciplinaria de investigación cientíca, Vol 4 , No. 33,
April-June 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. Pags 55-68
Amarilis Rita Pérez Licea, Irene Trelles Rodríguez, Caridad Aurora Lora Quesada, Jorge Luis Olmo Pérez y Luisa Noa Silveiro
65
already been acquired, which benets pre-professional training and the development of
habits, skills and abilities of the student (Herrera et al., 2012).
The implementation of the student scientic activity must be systematic since it has
inextricable links with autonomous work, experimentation and pre-professional practice as
an effective way to develop cognitive activity that leads to the independence and creativity of
students in training, together in addition to the problem teaching through which the research
process is oriented under the guidance of the teacher in question, authors’ criteria have
described it in such a way that in the settings of the particular disciplines it is necessary and
consistent in our study (Canto, Cabrera & Franco, 2014).
Therefore, the multifactorial implication to guarantee the inuence of the pedagogical work
on the students is evident, where the training received to develop the research in general
of the teachers, the follow-up with an integrative nature to the autonomous work and
the availability of actions play an important role to achieve the participation of a greater
number of students following a methodology scientic activity through the sequence of
actions necessary to be developed by the school and its application to include its students
in the Student Scientic Conference, as one of the strategies to increase the motivation and
consolidation of the contents.
Conservative and traditionalist elements are still maintained within teaching despite the
constant attempts to achieve effective learning by linking daily practice to the solidity of
knowledge, insucient development of habits, skills and values in professional training still
coexist in the context of the current University in the XXI century. The authors consider
important the constant connection with the development of autonomous work, the
experimentation and pre-professional practice through the different forms of organization
of teaching where the scientic student activity is included in the various curriculum subjects
that generate motivation in students to raise to the maximum expression the learning
process of the science in question with which they have been involved.
The above criteria coincide with those addressed in a letter to the editor of Alfonso (2015),
when writing about the low participation of papers related to the subject of medical education
and warning about the importance related to the state of educational and pedagogical
research at the university medical as a need for permanent updating.
The authors of this work show that in order to adequately face the challenges for the
implementation of the curricular redesign of Ecuadorian nursing programs, within which
the consolidation of labor research activity and curricular training for research is addressed,
projection and preparation for undergraduate training with direct inuence on postgraduate
studies is essential (Pernas et al. 2019); in such a way we can refer to the ideal embodied
by Oramas, Jordán and Valcarcel (2012), that in the pedagogical professional performance
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include the levels of achievement of results in the performance of each teacher, both in
attendance, teaching and research.
The results obtained from the diagnosis show the signicant insuciencies and potentialities,
which are consistent with data obtained by Perez et al. (2018, 2019), who states that to
support the training process it is necessary to take into account different spaces and
contexts of student performance both in pre-professional and bonding practice given the
criteria and analysis on the basis of student scientic research since they are important to
take into account for their inclusion within the educational organizational forms and that
their actions on a daily basis lead to the improvement of formative research in the different
units of curricular organization given that Nursing training has a strong component of
on-the-job education, for which the presence of scientic student groups is also necessary
as an essential step for research training in undergraduate studies.
Conclusions
In general, it can be concluded that the systematization required for the direction of students
in the training of investigative skills in their daily actions is not yet achieved as a necessary
part of formative research, which could have a negative inuence on the current state of the
motivation of the respondents to participate and carry out student scientic work.
As for the preparation received by the subjects taught for the realization of scientic
student work, there is still no strong enough link that leads to the increase in activity as an
important part of formative research, given that there is multifactorial involvement in the
personal components of the teaching-learning process for students and teachers, where the
organizational aspects of academic activity are mostly fullled and the investigative part is
disregarded.
Another important factor to take into account was that it was not possible to socialize in a
pertinent way criteria about the planning of actions and strategies in order to link research
in the contexts of pre-professional practice and skills acquired in the various educational
organizational forms.
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April-June 2020. e-ISSN 2550-6862. Pags 55-68
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