Flexible Diplomacy: Scholars as Key Players in Track II Diplomacy

Otto F. von Feigenblatt


IntroductionThe field of traditional diplomacy has changed very little since the Congress of Vienna in the 19thcentury. Globalization, non-traditional security threats, and a changing global landscape require a more flexible diplomacy that includes a wider range of stakeholders such as NGOs, community leaders, and most importantly scholars/academics.ObjectiveThe academic freedom enjoyed by scholars allows them to explore policy questions from a scientific perspective Materials and methods the present study follows the grounded theory approach to model development while adopting a largely constructivist paradigm in terms of the nature of diplomacy Resultthe academic freedom enjoyed by scholars allows them to explore policy questions from a scientific perspective. Thus, scholars have the freedom to explore controversial topics in an environment of respect and professionalism. Discussion Scholars have historically served as the conscience of their generation and also as the keepers and creators of civilization and therefore it is only natural for them to play important roles in public policy Conclusions The integration of the scholarly community into the diplomatic corps of developing countries can reduce the intrinsic asymmetry between the expertise and skills of the ministries of foreign


professionalism, grounded theory, roles

Full Text:



Ackerly, B., & True, J. (2008). Reflexivity in Practice: Power and Ethics in Feminist Research on International Relations. International Studies Review, 10(4), 693-707.

Alldred, P., & Gillies, V. (2008). Eliciting Research Accounts: Re/Producing Modern Subjects? In M. Mauthner, M. Birch, J. Jessop & T. Miller (Eds.), Ethics in Qualitative Research (pp. 146-165). London Sage.

Anderson, J. E. (2006). Public Policymaking (6th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Arnold, D. (2006). Free Trade Agreements and Southeast Asia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 36(2), 195-207.

Arnold, K. J. (2005). How to Build Your Expertise in Facilitation The IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation (pp. 495-523). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Baker, L. L. (2005). Facilitator Core Competencies as Defined by the International Association of Facilitators. In S. Schuman (Ed.), The IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation (pp. 459-471). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bell, N., & Nurre, S. (2005). The Big Picture: Creating an Ongoing Client Relationship. In S. Schuman (Ed.), The IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation (First ed., pp. 7-20). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bens, I. (2005). Advanced Facilitation Strategies: Tools & Techniques to Master Difficult Situations (First ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bergdall, T. D. (2005). Facilitating Participatory Evaluation Through Stories of Change. In S. Schuman (Ed.), The IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation (pp. 421-448). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bracken, J. (2005). Eight Ps of Effective Facilitation Planning and Preparation. In S. Schuman (Ed.), Teh IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation (pp. 57-72). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bradley, L., & Beyerlein, M. (2005). Facilitation of the Future: How Virtual Meetings Are Changing the Work of the Facilitator. In S. Schuman (Ed.), The IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation (pp. 295-311). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Broome, B. J. (1997). Designing a Collective Approach to Peace: Interactive Design and Problem-Solving Workshops with Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot Communities in Cyprus. International Negotiation, 2, 381-407.

Brunnee, J., & Toope, S. J. (2006). Norms, Institutions and UN Reform: The Responsibility to Protect. Journal of International Law and International Relations, 2, 121-137.

Chandler, D. (2009). Critiquing Liberal Cosmopolitanism? The Limits of the Biopolitical Approach. International Political Sociology, 3(1), 53-70.

Chilberg, J. (2005). A Procedural Analysis of Group Facilitation: A Communication Perspective. In S. Schuman (Ed.), The IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation (pp. 135-151). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Chilberg, J. C. (1989). Facilitating Communication in Problem-Solving Groups. Management Communication Quarterly, 3(1), 51-70.

Chilberg, J. C. (1995). The Interaction Method: A Case Study in Using Group Facilitation Rules and Roles. In L. R. Frey (Ed.), Innovations in Group Facilitation: Applications in Natural Settings (pp. 53-74). New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc.

Chizuko, N. (2010). Reorganizations of Gender and Nationalism: Gender Bashing and Loliconized Japanese Society. Mechademia, 5, 225-239.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (Second ed.). London: SAGE Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for Teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

DeLamater, J. D., & Hyde, J. S. (1998). Essentialism vs. Social Constructionism in the Study of Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research, 35(1), 10-18.

Dore, R. (1997). Japan, Internationalism and the UN (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Doucet, A., & Mauthner, N. (2008). Knowing Responsibly: Linking Ethics, Research Practice and Epistemology. In M. Mauthner, M. Birch, J. Jessop & T. Miller (Eds.), Ethics in Qualitative Research (pp. 123-145). London: Sage.

Eckl, J. (2008). Responsible Scholarship After Leaving the Veranda: Normative Issues Faced by Field Researchers-and Armchair Scientists. International Political Sociology, 2(3), 185-203.

Ellis, D. C. (2009). On the Possibility of "International Community". International Studies Review, 11(1), 1-26.

Ellis, T. J., & Levy, Y. (2008). Framework of Problem-Based Research: A Guide for Novice Researchers on the Development of a Research-Worthy Problem. Informing Science: the International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, 11, 17-33.

Emerson, R. M., Fretz, R. I., & Shaw, L. L. (2007). Participant Observation and Fieldnotes. In P. Atkinson, A. Coffey, S. Delamont, J. Lofland & L. Lofland (Eds.), Handbook of Ethnography (pp. 352-368). London: Sage Publications.

Epps, J. (2005). Facilitation from the Inside Out. In S. Schuman (Ed.), The IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation (pp. 563-571). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Feigenblatt, O. v. (2008). The South African transition: A holistic approach to the analysis of the struggle leading to the 1994 elections. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 1(1), 48-80.

Foster, M. (2013). College's Raison d'être. The American Scholar, 82(3), 120.

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (2009). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research (Fourth Paperback ed.). New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction.

hallinger, P., & Lu, J. (2013). Learner centered higher education in East Asia: assessing the effects on student engagement. The International Journal of Educational Management, 27(6), 594-612.

Hamlin, T. (2009). Bangkok's 2008 Stumble: Time for Reform. http://www.stimson.org/pub.cfm?ID=744

Heller, D. (2005). The Relevance of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) for Regional Security in the Asia-Pacific. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 27(1), 123-145.

HSIN-HUANG, HSIAO, M., & WAN, P.-S. (2007). The Experiences of Cultural Globalizations in Asia-Pacific. Japanese Journal of Political Science, 8(3), 361-376.

Ish-Shalom, P. (2008). Theorization, Harm, and the Democratic Imperative: Lessons from the Politicization of the Democratic-Peace Thesis. International Studies Review, 10(4), 680-692.

Ishii, Y. (1994). Thai Muslims and the Royal Patronage of Religion. Law & Society Review, 28(3), 453-460

Johnson, C. (1995). Gentlemanly Values: Contesting Corruption Accusations in the Cities of London and Lagos in the mid-1950s. In P. Caplan (Ed.), Understanding Disputes: The Politics of Argument (pp. 83-109). Oxford Providence: BERG.

Kissinger, H. (1994). Diplomacy (Paperback ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Kriesberg, L. (1997). The Development of the Conflict Resolution Field Peacemaking, in International Conflict: Methods & Techniques (pp. 51-77). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Pece Press.

Lal, D. (2004). IN PRAISE OF EMPIRES: Globalization and Order (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lockard, C. A. (2009). Southeast Asia in World History. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lueddeke, G. (2008). Reconciling Research, Teaching and Scholarship in Higher Education: An Examination of Disciplinary Variation, the Curriculum and Learning. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2(1), 1-18.

Lynch, C. (2008). Reflexivity in Research on Civil Society: Constructivist Perspectives. International Studies Review, 10(4), 708-721.

MacFarlane, S. N., & Khong, Y. F. (2006). Human Security and the UN: A Critical History (1st Edition ed.). Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

Malik, M. (2013). Historical Fiction: China's South China Sea claims. World Affairs, 176(1), 83-90.

McCargo, D. (2008). Tearing Apart the Land: Islam and Legitimacy in Southern Thailand (First ed.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Miller, J. (2009). Soft Power and State-Firm Diplomacy: Congress and IT Corporate Activity in China. International Studies Perspectives, 10(3), 285-302.

Mulgan, A. G. (2008). Breaking the Mould: Japan’s Subtle Shift from Exclusive Bilateralism to Modest Minilateralism. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 30(1), 52-72.

Murphy, E., & Dingwall, R. (2007). The Ethics of Ethnography. In P. Atkinson, A. Coffey, S. Delamont, J. Lofland & L. Lofland (Eds.), Handbook of Ethnography (pp. 339-351). London: Sage Publications.

Nair, D. (2008). Regionalism in the Asia Pacific/East Asia: A Frustrated Regionalism? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 31(1), 110–142.

Negotiation: Your Mentor and Guide to Doing Business Effectively. (2003). Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Notar, B. E. (2008). Producing Cosmopolitanism at the Borderlands: Lonely Planeteers and "Local" Cosmopolitans in Southwest China. Anthropological Quarterly, 81(3), 615-650.

Ongsakun, S., Millar, D. W., Barron, S., & Tanratanakul, C. (2006). History of Lan Na. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.

Peneau, D. (2013). Should Beijing Worry about Warming Relations between Burma and the United States? China Perspectives, 2013(2), 76-78.

Roberts, J. M. (1997). The Penguin History of Europe (Paperback ed.). London: Penguin Books.

Rodham-Clinton, H. (2010). Leading Through Civilian Power: Redefining American Diplomacy and Development. Foreign Affairs, 89(6), 13-26.

Rogers, A. (1996). Teaching Adults (Second ed.). Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Simon, S. (2008). ASEAN and Multilateralism: The Long, Bumpy Road to Community. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 30(2), 264-292.

Sponsel, L. E. (1994). The Mutal Relevance of Anthropology and Peace Studies. In L. E. Sponsel & T. Gregor (Eds.), The Anthropology of Peace and Nonviolence (pp. 1-21). London: Boulder.

Syukri, I. (1985). History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani (C. Bailey & J. N. Miksic, Trans.). Athens: Ohio University.

Than, M., & Thein, M. (2007). Transitional Economy of Myanmar: Present Status, Developmental Divide and Future Prospects. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 24(1), 98-118.

Tow, W. T., Thakur, R., & Hyun, I.-T. (Eds.). (2000). Asia's emerging regional order: Reconciling traditional and human security. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

University, C. (2014). Chulalongkorn University: Pillar of the Kingdom. Retrieved September 2, 2014, from http://www.chula.ac.th/en/

Villarreal, A. (2014, November 11). Reales Academias: una renovacion urgente y necesaria para el siglo XXI, Diario ABC. Retrieved from http://www.abc.es/cultura/20141104/abci-reales-academias-201411021935.html

Weitz, R. (2011). Nervous Neighbors: China Finds a Sphere of Influence. World Affairs, 173(6), 6-15.

Wellin, C., & Fine, G. A. (2007). Ethnography as Work: Career Socialization, Settings and Problems. In P. Atkinson, A. Coffey, S. Delamont, J. Lofland & L. Lofland (Eds.), Handbook of Ethnography (pp. 323-338). London: Sage Publications.

Willis, J. W. (2007). Foundations of Qualitative Research: Interpretive and Critical Approaches. London: SAGE Publications.

Wilmot, W. W., & Hocker, J. L. (2007). Interpersonal Conflict (7th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31876/er.v3i28.574


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.